Wireless Telecommunications
Lesson 7: 3G Cellular - CDMA

In this lesson, we’ll cover 3G mobile cellular radio technologies:

  • How the quest for an international standard to resolve 2G I-95 CDMA vs. GSM TDMA led to a Frankenstein standard called IMT-2000
  • How IMT-2000 included five different incompatible variations for implementing 3G
  • How two of them were of most interest: IMT-MC, also known as 1X, and IMT-DS, also known as UMTS, both employing CDMA technology
  • The tragic-comic attempts by Europeans to deploy UMTS without reliance on Qualcomm or on the United States government's GPS
  • The data-optimized variations of the two, 1XEV-DO and HSPA respectively.
  • The capitulation of the 1X camp to the UMTS camp's plan for 4G, and how that led to the widespread deployment of HSPA.

This free online wireless training lesson is in both the CTNS Certification Package and the CTA Certification Package.

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Certification Packages That Include This Course

CTNS Certification Package

Six online courses plus TCO Certification covering the core knowledge needed for telecommunications today:
  • The PSTN
  • Wireless Telecommunications
  • The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
  • Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
  • IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
  • MPLS and Carrier Networks

TCO Certification, Certificate and Letter of Reference.

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CTA Certification Package

Sixteen online courses covering telecom, datacom and networking for non‑engineers from A-Z, plus the prestigious TCO Certified Telecommunications Analyst certification.

Includes the six CTNS courses plus

  • The Telecommunications Industry
  • Digital
  • Transmission Systems and Fiber Optics
  • IP Security
  • The Internet, and many more

TCO Certification, Certificate and Letter of Reference.

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Study Guide Notes For This Lesson

These are the words that are displayed and spoken during the lesson. Get these notes for the whole course in the Certification Study Guide, available in print or eBook. Many people tell us a printed companion book enhances their learning!

The third generation of cellular is usually referred to as 3G. The main objectives of the third generation were to improve capacity, the number of simultaneous users, and to increase the number of bits per second that can be transmitted over the airlink, for mobile wireless high-speed Internet access and video.

Standards

To try to avoid a repeat of the 2G CDMA vs. TDMA dichotomy, in 2000, a standards committee attempted to define a world standard for 3G called IMT-2000.

They failed.

The result was a “standard” describing five incompatible implementation variations.

Like many other technologies, we ended up with one solution for “North America” and a different solution for “Europe”.

To support higher bit rates over the airlink, more frequency bandwidth is required.

Out of the five variations in IMT-2000, the two serious ones both specified CDMA as the method for spectrum-sharing – but disagreed on the width of the radio bands and how many bands there should be.

North America Service providers using CDMA for 2G, primarily North American and certain Asian countries, favored a strategy that was basically a software upgrade from 2G, employing existing 1.25 MHz radio carriers and allowing multiple carriers.

This is called IMT-MC or multi-carrier CDMA. Qualcomm’s brand name for this was CDMA2000.

The service provider could purchase licenses for as many bands as desired, and the bands can be variable sizes to meet different countries’ radio licensing plans, providing a flexible and scalable capacity.

A single 1.25 MHz carrier version of this referred to as “1X” was widely deployed.

The Rest of the World Service providers using GSM TDMA for second generation, primarily cellular carriers outside North America, favored the deployment of CDMA in a 5 MHz wide band.

This was called IMT-DS, Direct Spread, Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS).

An incentive for GSM operators was that, in theory, they would be able to re-use some control infrastructure from the second-generation TDMA GSM systems.

However, practical functioning of a multi-user, multi-base station, mobile CDMA network requires among other things constant control of the power on the cellphones, so that the received power at the base station is the same from all the phones; and compensation for time delay differences from signals from the same phone received at different base stations.

In the 1X systems, this was accomplished using techniques patented by Qualcomm (and paying Qualcomm a royalty for every cell phone and every base station transceiver), and the United States government’s Global Positioning System respectively.

European operators, with their UMTS, did not favor the notion of paying an American company royalties, and did not favor building a network dependent on the American government’s GPS.

Since UMTS required mathematical calculations across a 5 MHz band, compared to 1X’s 1.25 MHz band, at the time, the processor in the phone required to perform such calculations drew so much current from the battery that the battery heated up to the point that people burned their hands on the phones.

The GSM/UMTS Europeans embarked on a seven-year-long odyssey attempting to circumvent Qualcomm patents, and avoid using GPS.

After a number of strategies failed, a Euro-GPS called Galileo was created for UMTS; the first satellite was launched December 28 2005.

This delayed deployment of UMTS until 2007.

1X was deployed and working years earlier.

The tipping point between 2G and 3G in the GSM/UMTS camp was reached in the summer of 2007, when more new activations on these carriers’ networks were 3G CDMA (UMTS) instead of 2G TDMA (GSM).

The 2G TDMA technology GSM still had far more users, but like 1G analog, GSM will eventually disappear.

Data-optimized variations

For Internet access and watching video on cellphones, variations of the coding schemes optimizing for the statistical characteristics of “data” were developed and deployed by both camps.

In both cases, these were deployed on carriers (the 1.25 or 5 MHz bands) apart from those used for telephone calls.

Accessing these data carriers required either a “stick”, the USB dongle described in an earlier lesson, or dual radios in a phone, one tuned to the traditional carrier for telephone calls and a second tuned to the data-optimized carrier for watching video.

The 1X camp developed a variation called 1X Evolution Data-Optimized (1XEV-DO), allocating a carrier for data communications and promising 2.4 Mb/s over the airlink in the first incarnation. Proposals for future revisions of EV-DO promised to support more than 70 Mb/s over the airlink.

In the UMTS camp, the variation was called High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), referring to improvements in the UMTS downlink, often called High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and in the uplink, High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) and also Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH).

Revisions of HSDPA promised download rates of 14.4 Mb/s then 42 Mb/s.

Steve Jobs ends the standards war with the iPhone

Market forces finally pushed the two camps together.

The fact that there were far more 2G GSM users on the planet meant that for one thing, handset manufacturers produced 2G GSM phones before 2G CDMA phones. GSM phones were less expensive and had better features.

This trend was continuing into 3G, where UMTS phones would have the same advantage over 1X phones.

Another fact was that Steve Jobs of Apple only permitted carriers operating TDMA systems to have the iPhone, then only permitted carriers with HSPA systems to have the iPhone 3G.

Finally, the 1X camp threw in the towel and decided to go with the UMTS camp’s proposal for the fourth generation to level the playing field.

As soon as that decision was made, then the deployment of 1XEV-DO was more or less capped, and some 1X carriers began deploying HSPA instead.

And the fact is, as soon as carriers that were in the 1X camp, like Verizon in the US and Bell and TELUS in Canada deployed HSPA, Steve Jobs allowed the iPhone on their networks.

As the iPhone was at the time the most popular phone, this was a major incentive for the 1X camp.

It appears that one of the legacies of Steve Jobs will not just be the iPhone, but a key part in ending the standards war.

Verizon 1X EV-DOVoiceband Filter

Learning Objectives - What You Will Learn

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to explain:
  • The IMT-2000 “standard” that included five different incompatible variations for implementing 3G
  • The two that were of most interest: IMT-MC, also known as 1X, and IMT-DS, also known as UMTS, both employing CDMA technology
  • The attempts to deploy UMTS without Qualcomm or the US GPS leading to a seven-year delay in deploying UMTS.
  • The data-optimized variations of 1X and UMTS: 1XEV-DO and HSPA respectively.
  • How market forces caused the capitulation of the 1X camp, deciding to go with the UMTS camp’s plan for 4G, and how that led to the widespread deployment of HSPA.

Lessons In This Course

Lesson 1.  Course Introduction
The first lesson begins the course with an overview of the course and lessons, plus general radio principles. It provides both a walkthrough of the course and a sample of the quality of the course graphics, text and presentation.

Lesson 2.  Mobile Network Components, Jargon and Basic Operation
The basic components  and operation of a mobile communication network, including handset, airlink, antennas, base station, transceiver, mobile switch, backhaul, registration and handoffs.

Lesson 3.  Cellular Principles and AMPS (1G)
In this lesson, we’ll begin with the requirements on the communication system: mobility, coverage and capacity, then cover the idea of a cellular radio system, and how it is used to meet the coverage requirement, how frequency-division multiplexing was used to meet the capacity requirement in the first generation of “cellular”, called AMPS in North America, the implications of a handoff to implement mobility, and end the lesson with the limitations of the first generation and room for improvement.

Lesson 4.  2G: Digital Radio - Voice Communications
2G cellular involved a change to digital radio, and also saw the emergence of warring factions with different views of how the spectrum should be shared.  In this lesson, we’ll examine the components of a digital radio system at a block diagram level to understand just what exactly someone means when they say “digital” radio and key aspects of the second generation of cellular.

Lesson 5.  Digital Cellular: Data Communications
Next, we’ll understand how a system designed to carry digitized speech using modems, which was the subject of the last lesson, can be employed to carry anything coded into 1s and 0s. We’ll see how a “data terminal” can plug into the block diagram of the previous lesson and what it connects to, and the difference between using a cellphone as a tethered modem vs. using the cellphone as a terminal.

Lesson 6. Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
Cellphones transmit and receive signals over shared radio bands. To separate users so that they do not interfere with one another, nor hear each other's conversations, service providers use one of four radio band or spectrum sharing methods: Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM).

In this lesson, we'll begin to sort out these technologies. We'll explain how FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDM work, and in this lesson how they were deployed for first and second generation with names like AMPS, GSM, TDMA (IS-136), and 2G CDMA (IS-95).

In subsequent lessons, we'll take a closer look at CDMA for third generation (UMTS and 1X), then 4G LTE which uses OFDM.

Lesson 7. 3G Cellular: CDMA
In this lesson, we’ll cover 3G mobile cellular radio technologies: how the quest for an international standard to resolve the I-95 CDMA vs. GSM TDMA incompatibility led to a Frankenstein standard called IMT-2000, with five incompatible variations for implementing 3G, and how two of them were of most interest: IMT-MC, also known as 1X, and IMT-DS, also known as UMTS, both employing CDMA technology.  We’ll cover the data-optimized variations of the two, 1XEV-DO and HSPA respectively, and the capitulation of the 1X camp to the UMTS camp’s plan for 4G – probably pushed past the tipping point by Steve Jobs and his iPhone –  and how that led to the widespread deployment of HSPA for 3G.

Lesson 8. 4G Mobile Cellular
In the last lesson on mobility, we’ll explore the technology that emerged as the consensus for 4G: the fourth generation of mobile cellular radio communications, called LTE, and the spectrum-sharing technology it employs called OFDM.

Lesson 9. 802.11 Wireless LANs – WiFi
Here, we provide an overview of the 802.11 wireless LAN standards, sometimes referred to as WiFi and hotspots.

We concentrate on understanding the variations of 802.11, the frequency bands they operate in, bit rates to be expected and practical issues.

Since 802.11 is wireless LANs, there are a number of associated topics: LAN frames, also called MAC frames, MAC addresses, LAN switches, IP addresses, routers and network address translation. 

Those topics are covered in other courses, particularly "Ethernet, LANs and VLANs", "Introduction to Datacom and Networking" and "IP Networks, Routers and Addresses". 

In this course, we concentrate on radio.

Lesson 10. Communication Satellites
In this last lesson of the course, we will take a quick overview of communication satellites, understanding the basic principles and the advantages and disadvantages of the two main strategies: Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and Low Earth Orbit.

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Overview of Courses in the CTNS Certification Package

Like Teracom's famous core training Course 101 "Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers", our very popular core training DVD-Video packages and the Telecom 101 textbook, the Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist Certification Package begins with the Public Switched Telephone Network, then a course on Wireless Telecommunications, followed by four courses covering IP telecommunications and IP telecom networks.

If you are interested only in IP telecommunications, the CIPTS: Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist package may be appropriate, as it skips the traditional telephony and wireless and goes directly to the IP telecommunications courses.

If your goal is to build a full, rounded knowledge of telecommunications, then understanding the history, structure and operation of the telephone network built over the past 135 years or more is the starting point for everything else.

Loops and Trunks   •  POTS   •  Circuit-Switching   •  LECs, CLECs and IXCs   •  Analog   •  Voiceband   •  DTMF   •  SS7

We begin with a history lesson, understanding how and why telephone networks and the companies that provide them are organized into local access and inter-city transmission, or as we will see, Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) and Inter-Exchange Carriers (IXCs).

Then we will establish a basic model for the PSTN and understand its main components: Customer Premise, Central Office, loop, trunk, outside plant, circuit switching, attenuation, loop length, remotes, and why knowledge of the characteristics of the loop remains essential knowledge even though we are moving to Voice over IP.

Next, we'll cover aspects of telephony and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service, including analog, the voiceband, twisted pair, supervision and signaling including DTMF. The course is completed with an overview of SS7, the control system for the telephone network in the US and Canada.

On completion of this course, you will be able to draw a model of the Public Switched Telephone Network, identify and explain its components and technologies including:

  • Loops and trunks, CO, telephone switches and circuit-switching
  • Twisted pair, the outside plant, remotes, fiber to the neighborhood
  • The founding, breakup and re-emergence of AT&T in the US; Bell & TELUS in Canada
  • LECs, IXCs and CLECs
  • Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS):
  • Analog, the voiceband, how it relates to copper wires, electricity, circuits and sound
  • Supervision, dial tone, ringing, lightning protection, tip and ring, -48 volts
  • Touch-tone and DTMF
  • Basics of SS7 and call routing
Mobility   •  Cellular Networks   •  Internet over Cellular   •  GSM   •  UMTS and CDMA   •  LTE   •  WiFi   •  Satellite

In many parts of the world, particularly outside Canada, the US and Western Europe, the physical telephone network is wireless, as deploying radio transceivers is far cheaper than embarking on a new project to pull copper wires and/or fiber to every residence.

Most of this course is devoted to mobile wireless telecommunications. We begin with basic concepts and terminology including base stations and transceivers, mobile switches and backhaul, handoffs, cellular radio concepts and digital radio concepts.

Then, we cover spectrum-sharing technologies and their variations in chronological order: GSM/TDMA vs. CDMA for second generation, 1X vs. UMTS CDMA for third generation along with their data-optimized 1XEV-DO and HSPA, how Steve Jobs ended the standards wars with the iPhone and explaining the OFDM spectrum-sharing method of LTE for 4G.

This course is completed with a lesson on WiFi, or more precisely, 802.11 wireless LANs, and a lesson on satellite communications.

You'll gain a solid understanding of the key principles of wireless and mobile networks:

  • Coverage, capacity and mobility
  • Why cellular radio systems are used
  • Mobile network components and operation
  • Registration and handoffs
  • Digital radio
  • "Data" over cellular: Internet access
  • Cellular technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
    Generations: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
  • Systems: GSM, UMTS, 1X, HSPA, LTE
  • WiFi, 802.11 wireless LANs
  • Satellite communications

The remaining four courses in the CTNS package are on the "IP" telecommunications network and its three main enabling technologies: Ethernet, IP and MPLS, and beginning with the OSI model and its layers to establish a framework.

If you'd prefer to take just these four "IP" courses, check out the Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist package.

Protocols & Standards   •  OSI Model   •  Layers   •  Protocol Stacks   •  How Protocol Stacks Work

This course establishes a framework for all of the subsequent discussions: the OSI 7-Layer Reference Model, which identifies and divides the functions to be performed into groups called layers.

This framework is required to sort out the many functions that need to be performed, and to be able to discuss separate issues separately.

First, we'll define the term "protocol" and compare that to a standard. Then we'll define "layer" and how a layered architecture operates, and provide an overview of the name, purpose and function of each of the seven layers in the OSI model.

Then, we'll go back through the story more slowly, with one lesson for each of the layers, examining in greater detail the functions that have to be performed and giving examples of protocols and how and where they are used to implement particular layers.

The result is a protocol stack, one protocol on top of another on top of another to fulfill all of the required functions. To make this more understandable, this course ends with the famous FedEx Analogy illustrating the concepts using company-to-company communications, and an analogy of Babushka dolls to illustrate how the protocol headers are nested at the bits level.

On completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Define a protocol and differentiate that from a standard
  • Explain why a layered architecture is required
  • List the seven layers of the OSI model, the name, purpose and functions of each
  • Explain how the layers relate to each other
  • Explain how a protocol stack operates and protocol headers.
MAC Addresses   •  802.3 and Ethernet   •  Broadcast Domains   •  LAN Cables   •  LAN Switches   •  VLANs
This course is everything you need to know about LANs.  As we will see in the OSI Layers course, this course could also be titled "Layer 2".
We'll begin with the original LAN: Ethernet and its bus topology, defining "broadcast domain" and explaining its fundamental operation and characteristics: CSMA-CD access control, MAC addresses and MAC frames.
Then we'll cover the IEEE 802 standards and the evolution of Ethernet from 10BASE-T to Gig-E, LAN cables and the TIA-568 cable categories, basic cabling design; what "bridging" means and how a LAN switch works.
This course is completed with the important concept of VLANs: defining broadcast domains in software, a key part of basic network security practice.
On completion of this course, you will be able to explain
• Ethernet and the original bus design
• What a broadcast domain is
• What MAC addresses are
• The access control mechanism
• The IEEE 802 series of standards, 802.2 and 802.3
• Gigabit Ethernet on copper and fiber
• Codes like 100BASE-T
• LAN cables and the TIA-568 cable categories
• LAN switches, also called "Layer 2" switches
• How and why VLANs are used to separate devices
IP Packets   •  Packet Networks   •  Routers   •  Static, Dynamic, Public, Private Addresses   •  NAT   •  IPv6
This is a comprehensive course on IP addresses, routers and packets. Referring to the OSI Layers, this course could also be called Layer 3. We begin with the two basic principles of packet networks: bandwidth on demand, also known as overbooking or statistical multiplexing; and packet-switching, also known as packet forwarding or routing.
We'll understand what routers do and where they are located, routing tables and the basic operation of a router and the standard strategy deploying an edge router between the LANs and the WAN at each location.
Then we'll cover IP version 4: address classes and how they are assigned to Regional Internet Registries then ISPs then end-users, dotted-decimal notation, static addresses, dynamic addresses and DHCP, public addresses, private addresses and NAT.
The course concludes with IPv6: the IPv6 packet and changes from IPv4, IPv6 address allocations and assignments and end up understanding how IPv6 subnets will be assigned to broadcast domains and 18 billion billion addresses per residence.

On completion of this course, you will be able to explain:

  • What a packet is
  • What a router is
  • Overbooking and bandwidth on demand
  • Why and how it can be implemented
  • What a network is, what a private network is
  • How routers implement a network by connecting links
  • How routers move packets between broadcast domains
  • Basic network design and security: packet filtering
  • The basic structure and contents of a routing table
  • The Customer Edge
  • IPv4 address blocks: Class A, Class B and Class C
  • Dotted-decimal notation
  • Static addresses and dynamic addresses
  • DHCP and how and why it is used to assign both
  • Public addresses and private addresses
  • How, why and where each is used
  • NAT: Network Address Translation
  • IPv6
  • How IPv6 addresses are allocated to ISPs
  • How each residence gets 18 billion billion IPv6 addresses
Carrier Packet Networks   •  Technologies   •  MPLS   •  SLAs   •  CoS   •  Integration & Aggregation

MPLS and Carrier Networks is a comprehensive, up-to-date course on the networks companies like AT&T build and operate, how they are implemented, the services they offer, and how customers connect to the network.
The IP packets and routing of the previous course is one part of the story. Performance guarantees, and methods for quality of service, traffic management, aggregation and integration is another big part of the story, particularly once we leave the lab and venture into the real world and the business of telecommunications services.
We'll begin by establishing a basic model for a customer obtaining service from a provider, defining Customer Edge, Provider Edge, access and core, and a Service Level Agreement: traffic profile vs. transmission characteristics.
Next, we'll understand virtual circuits, a powerful tool used for traffic management and how they are implemented with MPLS, explaining the equipment, jargon and principles of operation.
Without bogging down on details, we’ll cut through buzzwords and marketing to demystify:

  • Carrier packet networks and services
  • Customer Edge (CE) and Provider Edge (PE)
  • Service Level Agreements
  • Traffic profiles
  • Virtual circuits
  • QoS, Class of Service and Differentiated Services
  • Integration, convergence and aggregation
  • MPLS and other network technologies
  • How this relates to TCP/IP
  • How MPLS is used for business customer VPNs
  • How MPLS is used for integrated access:
  • How all services are carried together on one circuit
  • How MPLS is used to prioritize and manage IP packets
  • MPLS services" vs. the Internet
This course can be taken by those who need just an introduction to carrier networks and MPLS, as well as by those who need to establish a solid base on which to build more detailed knowledge.
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About TCO Certification

Teracom is an Accredited Training Partner of the Telecommunications Certification Organization, authorized to administer exams for TCO certifications on the myTeracom Learning Management System and award TCO Certifications.

TCO Certification is proof of your knowledge of telecom, datacom and networking fundamentals, jargon, buzzwords, technologies and solutions.

It's backed up with a Certificate suitable for framing - plus a personalized Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction detailing the knowledge your TCO Certification represents and inviting the recipient to contact Teracom for verification.

You may list Teracom Training Institute as a reference on your résumé if desired.

Getting your Certificate

Each course has a course exam, consisting of ten multiple-choice questions chosen at random from a pool and shuffled in order. Passing the course exams proves your knowledge of these topics and results in your certification as a Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist.

Your Certificate and Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction will be immediately available for download from your Dashboard in the myTeracom Learning Management System. You may also order a signed and sealed Certificate by airmail.
Choosing the "Unlimited Plan" at registration allows you to repeat courses and/or exams at no additional charge – which means guaranteed to pass if you're willing to learn.

Alternatively, if you like this discounted package of courses, but don't need the certification – or don't feel like writing exams – no problem! Take the Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers course package, which includes the same courses as the CTNS certification package, without the certification exams.

Benefits of Certification for Individuals

One benefit of TCO certification is differentiating yourself from the rest of the crowd when applying for a job or angling for a promotion.

The knowledge you gain taking Teracom's Online Courses, confirmed with TCO Certification, is foundational knowledge in telecommunications, IP, networking and wireless: fundamental concepts, mainstream technologies, jargon, buzzwords, and the underlying ideas - and how it all fits together.

This type of knowledge and preparation makes you an ideal candidate to hire or promote to a task, as you will be able to build on your knowledge base to quickly get up to speed and work on a particular project - then have the versatility to work on subsequent projects.

TCO Certification will help demonstrate you have this skill... a desirable thought to have in your potential manager's mind.

Benefits of Certification for Employers

Take advantage of these courses for individual learning, a team, or for an entire organization.

The scalable myTeracom Learning Management System can register and manage all of your people through their courses, lessons and exams, and generate management reports showing progress and scores with the click of a button.

For larger organizations, the courses and exams can also be licensed and deployed on an organization's internal LMS.

Teracom certification packages are an extremely cost-effective way of implementing consistent, comprehensive telecommunications and networking technology fundamentals training, ensuring that both existing resources and new hires are up to the same speed, with a common vocabulary, framework and knowledge base.

The course exams provide concrete measurements of competency in key knowledge areas. Management can view the progress and results of all team members and export the results to Excel with the click of a button.

These reports identify skills deficiencies and strengths, and provide tangible proof of return on investment and team readiness for reports to upper management.

Teracom Advantages

  • Training based on Teracom's proven instructor-led training courses developed and refined over more than twenty years providing training for organizations including AT&T, Verizon, Bell Canada, Intel, Microsoft, Cisco, Qualcomm, the CIA, NSA, IRS, FAA, US Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force and hundreds of others, Teracom online courses are top-notch, top-quality and right up to date with the topics and knowledge you need.
  • Proven courses used by the biggest telecom carriers to train their employees
    These courses are the same courses used by the biggest telecom carriers in the business to train their employees - constantly updated to deliver the core technical knowledge required in the telecom business today. This is the best quality training of its kind available.
  • GSA Schedule
    Teracom online courses and certification packages are on our US Government supply contract... which took two years and a 200-page application... so you know you are getting quality.
  • 30-Day 100% Money-Back Guarantee
    You are protected by Teracom's 30-day, no-questions-asked, 100% money-back guarantee.  terms and conditions
  • Career-enhancing knowledge
    This training is an ideal way to implement a career-enhancing upgrade to your knowledge, or to prepare for a job in the telecommunications business.
  • Guaranteed to Pass with the Unlimited Plan
    Choose the Unlimited Plan for unlimited repeats of courses and exams - which means you can retake courses to refresh your knowledge in the future, and guaranteed to pass the exam if you're willing to learn.  unlimited plan info
  • Certificate and Letter of Reference
    In addition to your TCO Certificate, you will also receive – a Teracom exclusive – a personalized Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction explaining the courses you took and the knowledge you have, and inviting anyone you give it to to contact Teracom a reference... an excellent addition to your CV.
  • Self-paced training
    The courses and their lessons can be done at your own pace. There are no time limits for completing a lesson and moving to the next one. The courses may be done in any order.
  • Team training
    These courses are a highly cost-effective and consistent way for managers to get team members up to a common speed with measurable results. The myTeracom Learning Management System provides management reports showing your team's progress with a few clicks of the mouse.  more info

What is the value of the CTNS certification?  Click here to find out