book T101 Telecom 101

Telecom 101

Fifth Edition: 2020

High-Quality Reference Book and Study Guide
Covering All Major Telecommunications Topics... in Plain English.

7" x 9" softcover book • printed in color • 550 pages • 5th edition • published 2020                
ISBN 9781894887588 (print)   ISBN 9781894887595 (eBook)

Packed with information, authoritative, covering all major topics - and written in plain English - Telecom 101 is also an invaluable textbook and day-to-day reference on telecom.

Completely updated and revised for the 2020s, the new Fifth Edition of Telecom 101 is the materials from the latest version of Teracom's famous Course 101 Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers, plus additional topics and chapters.

In a user-friendly 7 x 9" softcover version, printed in color, or in eBook format, Telecom 101 brings you in one volume consistency, completeness and unbeatable value.

Telecom 101 also serves as a study guide for the Telecommunications Certification Organization TCO Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) telecommunications certification, covering all material required for the CTA Certification Exam except the security module.

Our approach can be summed up with a simple philosophy: Start at the beginning. Progress in a logical order. Build one concept on top of another. Finish at the end. Avoid jargon. Speak in plain English.

Bust the buzzwords, demystify jargon, and cut through doubletalk! Fill gaps and build a solid base of structured knowledge. Understand how everything fits together. ... knowledge and understanding that lasts a lifetime.

Ideal for anyone needing a book covering all major topics in telecom, data communications, IP and networking… in plain English. A wealth of clear, concise, organized knowledge, impossible to find in one place anywhere else!

order a professionally printed and bound softcover copy             amazon ebook readable on ANY device with the kindle app or in your browser             get it on google play books             get it on itunes / ibooks

★★★★★ Best Book on the Market for Telecom, 6 stars

By Amazon Customer on August 6, 2017                
Format: Paperback | Verified Purchase
This is by far and away the best book for someone in the telecom field who works with these products on a daily basis. There is no other book that I have found that addresses these concepts in a clear and relevant manner. I work for AT&T and trust me, this book is on point.

It is also meaningful for someone interested in learning about telecom. The author starts the book by providing an overview of telecom and how it relates to modern technologies in use today.

Not only is the information extremely relevant and well written, the author is humorous and uses great real world examples to validate his points. A must read!!

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Trusted and Proven Content

This book is based on the course materials from Teracom’s instructor‑led Course 101 Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineering Professionals, tuned and refined over 20 years, and totally updated for the 2020s in this fifth edition.

With broadband Internet, the converged IP telecom network, cloud computing, web services and data centers in the front seat, the topics in this course represent the core knowledge set necessary for anyone serious in telecom today.

It has been written for those new to telecom, those getting up to speed, those filling in gaps, and for all those who do not have Engineering degrees specializing in telecommunications. Our goal is to demystify jargon and buzzwords, and put in place a structured understanding of telecom, the technologies and services, and most importantly, the underlying ideas – and how it all fits together.

The knowledge in this book is drawn from over 30 years of experience in the telecom business, working for telephone companies in jobs including Junior R&D Engineer, systems engineer, consultant writing telecom R&D tax credit claims, and teaching many private onsite courses for carriers.

The style of this book, the selection of material, its ordering and pacing, and the jokes, are the result of being the instructor at hundreds and hundreds of 2-day and 3-day seminar courses on these topics over the past 24 years.

The result is this book, Telecom 101: the course materials for an instructor‑led course that costs US$1895 to attend, augmented with substantial additional material, available in softcover textbook and ebook.

Telecom 101 is intended to be used as a textbook, sequentially building one concept on another like an instructor-led course. It is also intended to be a valuable day-to-day reference handbook and glossary.

Let’s get started!

Value Pricing

Written by our top instructor, Eric Coll, M.Eng., Telecom 101 contains 30 years of knowledge and learning distilled and organized into an invaluable study guide and practical day-to-day reference for non‑Engineers.

Looking through the chapter list and detailed outline below, you'll see that many chapters of Telecom 101 are like self-contained reference books on specific topics, like Wireless, Internet, IP, LANs and MPLS.

You can get all of these topics bound in one volume for one low price. Compare this to hunting down and paying for multiple books by different authors that may or may not cover what you need to know- and you'll agree this is a very attractive deal.

Career- and productivity-enhancing training... an investment that will be repaid many times over.

Chapter List

Telecom 101 is composed of four parts: The Fundamentals, Telecommunications Technologies, Equipment, Carriers and Interconnect, and finally Networking.

These topics are the core knowledge set necessary for anyone serious in telecom today.


The first part of Telecom 101 is eight chapters that cover the fundamentals of telecom, filling gaps, explaining concepts and establishing a solid knowledge base. First is an introduction to the book, then a high-level pass with a big-picture view and introducing all of the course topics.

Then we progress in a logical order: how telecom circuits are provisioned by carriers, telecom fundamentals, followed by IP packet network fundamentals. Then you’ll learn about the Internet as a business: ISPs, web services like AWS, cloud computing and data centers.

We’ll review today’s services in the residential, business and wholesale categories. Next is digital media: how voice is digitized, digital video, digital images, digital quantities and digital text. The fundamentals are completed with the Fundamentals of VoIP.


In the second part of the course, we explore the three main technologies for transmitting information from one place to another: wireless, fiber and copper.

We'll cover wireless spectrum, mobile network components and operation, 4G LTE, 5G, fixed wireless broadband home internet, Wi-Fi and satellites.

Then you'll learn optical basics, and how networks are built with point-to-point fibers running Optical Ethernet, wave-division multiplexing, fiber in the core, metro and to the premise.

We'll finish with copper-wire technologies: DSL and POTS on twisted pair and the Legacy PSTN, Hybrid Fiber-Coax cable TV systems, T1 and the categories of LAN cables.


In the third part of the course, we explore the equipment like switches and routers that is connected by the fiber, copper and wireless of Part 2 to form networks, and the place and purpose of each.

Then we understand where and how connections physically take place between carriers for PSTN phone calls, for Internet traffic and CLEC services.


The fourth and final part of Course 101 is devoted to IP networking. We begin with the OSI Reference Model and its layers to provide a structure for the discussion: what a layer is, what the layers are, the functions of each, and the standard protocols at each layer.

Next is a chapter on Layer 2: Ethernet, 802 standards, broadcast domains and VLANs. Then, Layer 3: IP routers, IP addresses, DHCP, public and private addresses, Network Address Translation and IPv6.

Chapter 17 covers the core traffic management system MPLS, and how MPLS is used to implement VPNs, classes of service, service integration and traffic aggregation.

We'll conclude with a top-down review and roundup of technologies and a peek at the future of telecommunications.


Telecommunications is in constant change – and technologies that used to be in wide use are no longer. Along with some technical discussions, they've been moved to appendices to make room for the new: demoted rather than deleted, for those who have to deal with legacy technologies.  The last appendix provides a comprehensive list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the book.

Table of Contents / Detailed Outline

1  Introduction to the Book

1.1  Our Approach

1.2  How the Text is Organized

1.3  How to Use This Text

1.4  The Three Answers

1.5  Answer Number 1: Money

2  Introduction to Telecommunications

2.1  History of Telecommunications

2.1.1  Invention of the Telephone

2.1.2  Local Phone Companies

2.1.3  The Bell System

2.1.4  The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

2.1.5  Consolidation

2.1.6  Broadband Carriers

2.1.7  Canadian Telegraph Companies

2.1.8  Canadian Telephone Companies

2.1.9  The Rest of the World

2.1.10  New Technologies and New Players

2.2  Convergence

2.2.1  Network Sharing Strategies

2.2.2  ISDN

2.2.3  ATM

2.2.4  IP: Third Time is the Charm

2.3  Broadband

2.3.1  How Many Bits per Second is "Broadband"?

2.3.2  4K Guilty Dog Videos

2.3.3  Universal Service

2.4  Today's Converged Telecom Network

2.4.1  Common Carriers

2.4.2  Core

2.4.3  Access

2.4.4  Edge

2.4.5  Residential, Business and Wholesale Services

2.4.6  Data Centers

2.5  The Network Core

2.5.1  Rings

2.6  Network Protocols: Ethernet, IP and MPLS

2.6.1  Optical Ethernet Point-to-Point Links

2.6.2  IP Packet Routing Between Links

2.6.3  MPLS Traffic Management

2.7  Network Access: The Last Mile

2.7.1  Twisted Pair Loops

2.7.2  Coax

2.7.3  Fiber to the Residence & PONs

2.7.4  Wireless: Fixed and Mobile

2.8  Anatomy of a Service

2.8.1  Access Circuits

2.8.2  Circuit-Terminating Equipment

2.8.3  Network Connection Type

2.9  Inside the Network Cloud

2.9.1  Core

2.9.2  Edge

2.10  Network Edge Equipment

2.10.1  Multiplexers: TDM, FDM and WDM

2.10.2  Circuit Switch

2.10.3  Router

2.11  Interconnect to Other Carriers

2.11.1  The ILEC

2.11.2  Toll Switches, Toll Centers and POPs

2.11.3  Switched Access Tariff

2.11.4  Internet Traffic Interconnections

2.11.5  Business Service Interconnections

2.12  Services

2.12.1  Residential Services

2.12.2  Business Services

2.12.3  Wholesale Services

3  Telecom Fundamentals

3.1  Data Communication Circuit Model

3.1.1  Information Theory

3.1.2  ITU Model: DTEs and DCEs

3.2  Terminals, Clients, Servers and Peers

3.2.1  Dumb Terminal and Remote Host

3.2.2  Client-Server

3.2.3  Peer-to-Peer

3.3  Representing Bits on Digital Circuits: Pulses

3.3.1  Two-State Transmission Systems

3.3.2  Range Limiting Factors

3.3.3  Repeaters

3.3.4  Comfort Noise Generation

3.4  Representing Bits in Frequency Channels: Modems

3.4.1  Passband Channels

3.4.2  Carrier Frequencies

3.4.3  Modulation

3.4.4  "Press 1 to Understand How Modems Work"

3.4.5  Radio-Frequency Modems

3.4.6  CDMA and OFDM

3.4.7  ASK, FSK, PSK, QAM and QPSK

3.5  Serial and Parallel

3.5.1  Serial Ports: USB, LAN, SATA

3.5.2  Serial in Parallel For High Bit Rates

3.6  Sharing: Frequency-Division Multiplexing

3.6.1  Baseband vs. Frequency-Shifted

3.6.2  Coax, Radio and Fiber

3.6.3  Parallel

3.7  Sharing: Time-Division Multiplexing

3.7.1  Synchronous TDM Channels

3.7.2  Trunk Carrier Systems

3.7.3  T1, SONET and SDH

3.7.4  Other TDM Implementations: PONs, GSM, CAN-BUS 

3.8  Efficient Sharing: Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

3.8.1  Bandwidth on Demand

3.8.2  Packet Switching

3.9  Overbooking: Reducing User Cost

4   Network Fundamentals

4.1  Essential Functions for Communication

4.1.1  Bits

4.1.2  Coding

4.1.3  Error Control

4.1.4  Framing

4.1.5  Link Addressing

4.1.6  Network Addressing

4.2  Shared Access Links:  Wi-Fi, PONs, CATV, CAN-BUS

4.2.1  Primary Station and Secondary Stations

4.2.2  Physical Connection: Multidrop

4.2.3  Wi-Fi

4.2.4  PON

4.2.5  Cable TV

4.2.6  Industrial Controls: CAN-BUS

4.2.7  Legacy IBM Mainframes

4.3  Point-to-Point Links: Ethernet

4.3.1  Ethernet LANs and Balanced Mode

4.3.2  Transition to Point-to-Point and Switches

4.3.3  802 Standards

4.3.4  Buses, NICs, Interfaces and MAC Addresses

4.3.5  Switches

4.3.6  Broadcast Domains and MAC Addresses

4.4  Data Link Frames & MAC Addresses

4.4.1  MAC Frames

4.4.2  Transmission Between Devices on the Same Circuit

4.4.3  Legacy Systems and Terminology

4.5  Packet Networks

4.5.1  Routers and Network Addresses

4.5.2  Packets

4.5.3  Network Connections

4.5.4  Traffic Management

4.6  Carrier IP Networks

4.6.1  Routers and Routing

4.6.2  IP Packets

4.6.3  Network Routers and Customer Edge Router

4.6.4  End-to-End Packet Relay and Routing

4.7  IP Packets vs. MAC Frames

4.7.1  Purpose of Frames

4.7.2  Purpose of Packets

4.7.3  Packets Carried in Frames

4.7.4  MAC Address vs. IP Address

4.8  IP Packet Format

4.8.1  Packet Header

4.8.2  Unreliable, Connectionless Network Service

4.8.3  TCP/IP and Reliable Network Service

4.8.4  UDP and Best-Efforts Service

4.9  MPLS Labels

4.9.1  Managing Flows of Packets

4.9.2  Traffic Classes

5  The Internet

5.1   A Network To Survive Nuclear War

5.1.1  Connectionless Network Service

5.1.2  Al Gore Invents the Internet

5.1.3  Who Pays for the Internet?

5.1.4  Primitive Beginnings

5.2  The Inter-Net Protocol

5.2.1  Gateways

5.2.2  IP: Common Packet Format and Address Scheme

5.2.3  Connectionless, Unreliable Network Service

5.2.4  TCP and UDP

5.2.5  Routing Protocols

5.3  Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

5.3.1  Internet Access Providers

5.3.2  The Internet is a Business

5.3.3  Interconnect, Peering and Transit

5.3.4  Resellers

5.4  Domain Name System

5.4.1  DNS Servers

5.4.2  Domain Zone Files

5.4.3  SIP Records in DNS

5.5  Web Clients

5.5.1  Browsers

5.5.2  Apps

5.5.3  IoT Apps

5.6  Web Servers

5.6.1  HTML

5.6.2  HREFs and URLs

5.6.3  HTTP

5.7  Web Services and Cloud Computing

5.7.1  Web Server and Back End

5.7.2  Doing it Yourself & Dynamic DNS

5.7.3  Web Hosting

5.7.4  Virtualization and Cloud Computing

5.7.5  Amazon AWS

5.8  Data Centers

5.8.1  Commercial Multi-Tenant Data Centers

5.8.2  Collocation

5.8.3  Heat and Electricity

5.8.4  Connections to Internet Exchanges

5.9  Net Neutrality

5.9.1  No Corporations or Government

5.9.2  Without Regard for Content, Senders, or Receivers

5.9.3  Many Different Meanings

5.9.4  Criminal Activities

5.9.5  Transparency

5.9.6  Devil in the Details

5.9.7  No Meters

5.9.8  Zero-Rating

6  Telecom Services Overview

6.1  Residential Services

6.1.1  Broadband Internet

6.1.2  Convergence Achieved

6.1.3  PSTN Phone Numbers

6.1.4  VoIP Service Providers - Internet to PSTN Service

6.1.5  Basic Cable, Streaming, Rentals

6.1.6  Dedicated Capacity for TV vs. Internet Traffic

6.2  Business "Data" Services: VPNs & Internet

6.2.1  Internet

6.2.2  Private Network: Dedicated Lines

6.2.3  Virtual Private Network

6.2.4  MPLS VPNs

6.2.5  Internet VPNs

6.2.6  Anonymizer VPNs

6.2.7  Web Services

6.3  Business Voice Services: SIP Trunking, PBX Trunks, PRI, Centrex

6.3.1  Centrex

6.3.2  Private Branch Exchange & PBX Trunks

6.3.3  ISDN PRI

6.3.4  Tie Lines and Voice VPNs

6.3.5  Islands of VoIP

6.3.6  SIP Trunking: VoIP Between Locations & Dial-Out

6.3.7  Connecting VoIP to Ma Bell

6.3.8  SIP / VoIP Trunking Cheaper than PBX Trunks

6.4  Wholesale Services

6.4.1  Facilities-Based Carriers

6.4.2  Value-Adding Resellers

6.4.3  Services: Dark Fiber

6.4.4  Wavelengths

6.4.5  Carrier Ethernet

6.4.6  IP Services

6.4.7  Internet Transit

6.4.8  Internet Peering

6.4.9  Bit Rates

6.5  Content Delivery Networks

6.5.1  Paying Transit for Data Center to Consumer

6.5.2  Cutting Out the Middlemen

6.5.3  Implementing a Content Delivery Network

7  Digital Media: Voice, Video, Images, Quantities, Text

7.1  Analog and Digital: What do we really mean?

7.1.1  Analog Signal

7.1.2  Analog Circuit

7.1.3  Digital Signal

7.1.4  Digital Circuit

7.1.5  Bandwidth

7.2  Continuous vs. Discrete Signals

7.2.1  Continuous Signals

7.2.2  Discrete Signals

7.3  Voice Digitization (Analog-Digital Conversion)

7.3.1  Quantization

7.3.2  Sampling

7.3.3  Coding

7.4  Voice Reconstruction (Digital-Analog Conversion)

7.4.1  Reconstruction

7.4.2  Quantization Error

7.4.3  Aliasing Error

7.5  Voice Digitization: 64 kb/s G.711 Standard

7.5.1  256 Quantization Levels.

7.5.2  8,000 Samples per Second

7.5.3  8-bit Coding

7.5.4  64 kb/s G.711 Codec Standard

7.5.5  64 kb/s DS0 Channels

7.5.6  64 kb/s Packetized Voice

7.5.7  AMR Codec for Cellular

7.5.8  µ-law and a-law

7.6  Digital Video, H.264 and MPEG-4

7.6.1  Digital Video Cameras

7.6.2  Factors Affecting Video Quality

7.6.3  Definition vs. Resolution

7.6.4  Standard Definition, Interlaced and 480i

7.6.5  High Definition, Progressive and 720p

7.6.6  Full HD 1080 and 2K

7.6.7  Ultra HD and 4K

7.6.8  Compression

7.6.9  MPEG

7.6.10  MPEG-4 and H.264

7.7  Digital Images: JPEGs and GIFs

7.7.1  Lossless Compression: PNG

7.8  Digital Images in Email: MIME

7.8.1  UUENCODE, Quoted-Printable and Base-64 Encoding

7.9  Digital Quantities: Number Systems

7.10  Digital Quantities: Binary

7.11  Digital Quantities: Hexadecimal

7.11.1  Common Use for Hexadecimal

7.12  Digital Text

7.12.1  ASCII

7.12.2  Unicode

8  Fundamentals of Voice over IP

8.1  The Big Picture

8.2  Business VoIP Phones

8.3  Voice in IP Packets

8.4  Soft Switches / SIP Servers / Call Managers

8.4.1  Terminal Control

8.4.2  Call Control

8.5  Media Servers: Video Servers

8.5.1  Basic Cable and PVRs

8.5.2   Video on Demand

8.5.3  Content Delivery Networks

8.5.4  Integrated Messaging

8.5.5  More Media Servers

8.6  Gateways

8.6.1  Media Gateways

8.6.2  Signaling Gateways

8.7  Voice over IP over LANs and WANs

8.8  Key VoIP Standards

8.9  Where All of This is Headed: Broadband IP Dial Tone

9  Wireless

9.1  Radio

9.2  Spectrum

9.2.1  The Need for Regulation

9.2.2  Spectrum

9.2.3  Frequency Bands

9.2.4  Capacity vs. Performance Tradeoff

9.2.5  Mobile Communication Bands

9.2.6  Unlicensed Bands

9.2.7  Higher Frequency Bands and 5G

9.3  Mobile Network Components and Operation

9.3.1  0G: The Mobile Phone System

9.3.2  Mobility

9.3.3  Base Station, Cell, Airlink and Handset

9.3.4  Mobile Switch

9.3.5  Backhaul

9.3.6  Registration and Paging

9.3.7  Handoff

9.4  Cellular Radio with Handoffs

9.4.1  1G: The Advanced Mobile Phone System

9.4.2  Cells

9.4.3  Frequency Re-Use

9.4.4  Analog on Radio Channels

9.4.5  AMPS Handoffs and Dial-Up Modems

9.4.6  AMPS Capacity

9.4.7  Sectorization

9.5  Second Generation: Digital Cellular

9.5.1  PCS and GSM

9.5.2  PSTN Phone Calls using the Phone App: "Voice Minutes"

9.6  Mobile Internet: "Data Plan"

9.6.1  Cellphone as a Tethered Modem

9.6.2  Packet Relay to the Internet

9.6.3  Dongles

9.6.4  Smartphone as the Terminal

9.6.5  Billing Plans and Roaming

9.6.6  The Holy Grail of Convergence

9.7  Mobile Operators, MVNOs and Roaming

9.7.1  Mobile Network Operator

9.7.2  Mobile Virtual Network Operator

9.7.3  Roaming

9.8  Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM

9.8.1  FDMA

9.8.2  TDMA

9.8.3  CDMA

9.8.4  OFDM

9.9  3G: CDMA and HSPA

9.9.1  IMT-2000

9.9.2  1X or CDMA2000: IMT-MC

9.9.3  UMTS or W-CDMA: IMT-DS

9.9.4  Data-Optimized Carriers: HSPA and EV-DO

9.9.5  The End of the Standards War

9.10  4G: LTE

9.10.1  Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Long-Term Evolution

9.10.2  Radio Resource Controller

9.10.3  OFDM

9.10.4  3GPP Standards Committees

9.10.5  Qualcomm Patents

9.11  5G

9.11.1  Below 6 GHz

9.11.2  mmWave

9.12  3.5-GHz Fixed Wireless Broadband Home Internet

9.13  Wi-Fi: 802.11 Wireless LANs

9.13.1  System Components

9.13.2  Service Set ID

9.13.3  Unlicensed Radio Bands

9.13.4  Half-Duplex

9.13.5  802.11b and g

9.13.6  802.11a

9.13.7  Wi-Fi 4: 802.11n

9.13.8  Wi-Fi 5: 802.11ac

9.13.9  Wi-Fi 6: 802.11ax

9.13.10  VoIP over Wireless LANs

9.13.11  Wi-Fi Security

9.14  Communication Satellites

9.14.1  Transponders

9.14.2  Geosynchronous Orbit

9.14.3  Low Earth Orbit

9.14.4  Iridium Next

9.14.5  Orbcomm and Globalstar

9.14.6  Starlink

10  Fiber Optics

10.1  Fiber Basics

10.1.1  Lamdas

10.1.2  Pulses of Light

10.1.3  Attenuation and Dispersion

10.2  Fiber Optics and Fiber Cables

10.2.1  Core

10.2.2  Cladding and Coating

10.2.3  Cables

10.2.4  Fiber Count

10.2.5  Redundancy

10.3  Optical Wavelengths, Bands and Modes

10.3.1  Bands

10.3.2  Multimode and Modal Dispersion

10.3.3  Single-Mode Fiber

10.3.4  Chromatic Dispersion

10.3.5  Polarization-Mode Dispersion

10.4  Wave-Division Multiplexing: CWDM and DWDM

10.4.1  WDM

10.4.2  WDM Multiplexers

10.4.3  Optical Ethernet Paths

10.4.4  Current and Future Capacities

10.5  Optical Ethernet

10.5.1  Point-to-Point Connections

10.5.2  SFP Modules and Connectors

10.5.3  IEEE Standards

10.6  Network Core

10.6.1  Optical Ethernet, RPR and MPLS

10.6.2  SONET and SDH

10.6.3  Fiber Rings

10.7  Metropolitan Area Network

10.7.1  MANs to Office Buildings and Apartment Buildings

10.7.2  MANs to Neighborhoods

10.8  Fiber to the Premise (FTTP, FTTH): PONs

10.8.1  Passive Optical Network (PON)

10.8.2  Active Ethernet

10.8.3  PON Splitter Replaced with Layer 2 Switch

11  Copper

11.1  The Public Switched Telephone Network

11.1.1  Basic Model of the PSTN

11.1.2  Loops

11.1.3  Trunks and Circuit Switching

11.1.4  Remotes

11.1.5  DSL and DSLAMs in Brownfields

11.1.6  Greenfields: PONs on Fiber to the Premise

11.1.7  Active Ethernet to the Premise

11.2  Analog

11.2.1  Analog Signals

11.2.2  Analog Circuits

11.3  Capacity Restrictions

11.3.1  What is Speech?

11.3.2  Do Trees Falling in the Forest Make a Sound?

11.3.3  The Voiceband

11.3.4  Bandwidth

11.3.5  Why Does the Voiceband Stop at 3300 Hz?

11.3.6  Problems With Voiceband Restrictions

11.4  Problems with Analog Transmission

11.4.1  Attenuation and Amplifiers

11.4.2  Electro-Magnetic Interference

11.4.3  Crosstalk

11.4.4  Impulse Noise

11.5  Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS)

11.5.1  Tip and Ring

11.5.4  Microphone and Speaker

11.5.5  Balanced Signaling

11.5.6  Two-Way Simultaneous

11.5.7  Hybrid Transformer

11.5.8  Battery

11.5.9  Lightning Protection

11.5.10  Supervision

11.5.11  Call Progress Tones

11.6  Network Addresses: Telephone Numbers

11.6.1  Dialing Plan

11.6.2  Address Signaling

11.6.3  Pulse Dialing

11.6.4  DTMF: "Touch Tone"

11.6.5  In-Band Signaling

11.6.6  "Hidden" Buttons

11.6.7  Caller ID

11.7  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

11.7.1  DSL: Modems Above The Voiceband

11.7.2  ADSL, SDSL and XDSL

11.8  DSLAMs

11.8.1  Coexistence with POTS

11.9  Fiber to the Neighborhood (FTTN),
DSL to the Premise

11.9.1  Loop Length

11.9.2  Remote DSLAMs, OPI and SAC Boxes

11.10  DSL Standards

11.10.1  ADSL2+

11.10.2  VDSL2

11.10.3  VDSL2 Frequency Bands and Profiles

11.10.4  Bonding

11.10.5  Vectoring

11.11  Broadband Carriers: FTTN & Broadband Coax to the Premise

11.11.1  Hybrid Fiber-Coax Network

11.11.2  Frequency Channels

11.11.3  Fiber Serving Area

11.11.4  Television Converters

11.11.5  Modems on CATV Channels

11.11.6  Two-Way Communications Over Shared Access

11.12  DOCSIS and Cable Modem Standards

11.12.1  DOCSIS 1: Contention-Based Channel Sharing

11.12.2  DOCSIS 2: Reserved Time Slots on Channels

11.12.3  DOCSIS 3: CDMA on Channels

11.12.4  DOCSIS 3.1: OFDM

11.12.5  Wider Channels

11.13  T1 and E1

11.13.1  Time-Division Multiplexers

11.13.2  DS1 Frames

11.13.3  CSUs and Repeaters

11.13.4  Synchronization

11.13.5  Applications for T1

11.13.6  E1 Outside North America

11.13.7  TDM on Fiber

11.14  TIA-568 LAN Cable Categories

11.14.1  Category 1 through 5

11.14.2  TIA-568A vs. TIA-568B

11.14.3  Maximum Cable Length and Cabling Architecture

11.14.4  Difference Between Categories

11.14.5  Which Category To Use

12  Telecom Equipment

12.1  Broadband Network Equipment: Routers and Ethernet Switches

12.1.1  Carrier-Grade Core Routers

12.1.2  Carrier-Grade Ethernet Aggregation Switches

12.1.3  Enterprise Core Router

12.1.4  Enterprise Ethernet Switch

12.1.5  Enterprise Small Office Edge Router

12.1.6  Home / Small Business Edge Router with Wi-Fi

12.2  Broadband Customer Premise Equipment

12.2.1  Fiber Terminal

12.2.2  POTS Terminal

12.2.3  Cable and DSL Modems

12.2.4  Wireless Terminals

12.3  Telephone Circuit Switches

12.3.1  Circuit Switching

12.3.2  CO Switches

12.3.3  Line Cards

12.3.4  Digital Switching

12.4  Traditional PBX and Centrex

12.4.1  PBX

12.4.2  PBX Trunks

12.4.3  Digital Telephones: Electronic Business Sets

12.4.4  PBX and PABX

12.4.5  Attendant

12.4.6  Automated Attendant

12.4.7  IVR

12.4.8  Direct Inward Dialing (DID)

12.4.9  Automated Call Distribution (ACD)

12.4.10  Call Centers

12.4.11  Advantages of PBX

12.4.12  Disadvantages of PBX

12.4.13  Centrex

12.4.14  Advantages of Centrex

12.4.15  Disadvantages of Centrex

12.4.16  PBX vs. Centrex

12.4.17  Key Systems

12.5  SIP, Soft Switches, Hosted PBX and IP Centrex

12.5.1  Hard Switches

12.5.2  Soft Switches

12.5.3  SIP

12.5.4  Additional Functions

12.5.5  Location Independence

12.5.6  Customer Premise Softswitch

12.5.7  IP Centrex

12.5.8  Hosted PBX

12.5.9  Cloud-Based Softswitch as a Service

12.6  Gateways

12.6.1  Media Conversion

12.6.2  Signaling Conversion

13  Carriers and Interconnect

13.1  IX: Interconnect for Internet Traffic

13.1.1  Fiber to an AS

13.1.2  Transit

13.1.3  Peering

13.2  Telephone Network Architecture

13.2.1  Access Network

13.2.2  Switching Network

13.2.3  Transmission Network

13.3  PSTN Switching Centers, COs and Toll Centers

13.3.1  Class 5: Central Office

13.3.2  Wire Center

13.3.3  Local Calls

13.3.4  Class 4: Toll Center

13.3.5  Class 1, 2 and 3 Switching Centers

13.3.6  High Usage Trunks

13.4  Implementing Competition: LECs, POPs and IXCs

13.4.1  LECs, ILECs and CLECs

13.4.2  Inter-Exchange Carriers: IXCs

13.4.3  POP: Point of Presence

13.4.4  Switched Access

13.4.5  Equal Access and PIC Codes

13.5  Wireless and CATV Local Exchange Carriers

13.6  CLEC: Collocations and Dark Fiber

13.6.1  Unbundling

13.6.2  Dark Fiber and Dry Copper

13.6.3  Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC)

13.6.4  Collocations

13.6.5  Advantages

13.6.6  Disadvantages

13.6.7  Application

13.7  SS7

13.7.1  Carrier Interconnect

13.7.2  Call Setup

13.7.3  Out-Of-Band Signaling

13.7.4  Service Control Points and Service Switching Points

13.7.5  Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN)

13.7.6  Switch-Based Call Routing

13.7.7  SS7 In Practice

13.7.8  Residential Service Application Example

13.7.9  Business Service Application Example

14  The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks

14.1  Protocols and Standards

14.1.1  Functions To Be Performed

14.1.2  Monolithic vs. Structured Protocols

14.1.3  Open Systems and Standards

14.2  ISO OSI Reference Model

14.2.1  Layers

14.2.2  Separability of the Layers

14.2.3  Protocol Stacks

14.3  The OSI 7-Layer Model

14.4  Physical Layer: 802.3, DSL, DOCSIS, Wireless

14.5  Data Link Layer: 802 MAC

14.5.1  LANs, Frames and Layer 2 Switches

14.5.2  MAC Frames and MAC Addresses

14.5.3  Other Data Link Protocols

14.6  Network Layer: IP and MPLS

14.6.1  Packet-Switched Networks

14.6.2  Routing Table Updates

14.6.3  MPLS

14.7  Transport Layer: TCP and UDP

14.7.1  Reliability

14.7.2  Port Numbers

14.8  Session Layer: POP, SIP, HTTP

14.8.1  Password Authentication

14.8.2  Authentication Servers

14.8.3  Password Caching

14.8.4  Cookies

14.8.5  Client-Server Sessions

14.8.6  Peer-Peer Sessions

14.9  Presentation Layer: ASCII, Encryption, Codecs

14.9.1  Character Coding

14.9.2  E-Mail Coding

14.9.3  Codecs

14.9.4  Data Compression

14.9.5  Symmetric Encryption: Private Key

14.9.6  Asymmetric Encryption: Public Key Encryption and Digital Signatures

14.9.7  Example of Separability of Layers

14.9.8  Example of Peer Protocol

14.10  Application Layer: SMTP, HTML, English …

14.10.1  Email

14.10.2  More Application Layer Examples

14.11  Protocol Stacks

14.11.1  Example: Web Surfing

14.11.2  Voice over IP

14.12  Protocol Stack in Operation: Russian Dolls

14.12.1  Communications Flow

14.12.2  Segmentation at Each Layer

14.12.3  Nested Headers: Matryoshka dolls

14.13  Standards Organizations

14.13.1  ISO

14.13.2  DOD and IETF

14.13.3  ITU and Bellcore

14.13.4  TIA and IEEE

14.13.5  ANSI

15  Ethernet, LANs and VLANs

15.1  LAN Basics

15.1.1  Bus Topology

15.1.2  Broadcast Domain

15.1.3  Balanced Configuration

15.1.4  Collision Domain

15.1.5  MAC Address

15.1.6  Communication of MAC Frames

15.2  Ethernet and 802 Standards

15.2.1  IEEE 802 Standards

15.2.2  Ethernet vs. 802.3

15.2.3  Token Ring

15.2.4  Baseband LAN

15.2.5  10BASE-5

15.2.6  10BASE-2

15.2.7  10BASE-T

15.2.8  100BASE-T

15.2.9  1000BASE-T

15.2.10  Optical Ethernet

15.3  LAN Cables and Categories

15.3.1  Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

15.3.2  Shielding

15.3.3  TIA-568 LAN Cable Categories

15.3.4  TIA-568A vs. TIA-568B

15.3.5  Maximum Cable Length and Cabling Architecture

15.3.6  Difference Between Categories

15.3.7  Which Category To Use

15.4  LAN Switches: Layer 2 Switches

15.4.1  Hardware

15.4.2  Purpose and Operation

15.4.3  Buffers

15.4.4  Frame Forwarding

15.4.5  Broadcast Domain Defined by Switch

15.5  VLANs

15.5.1  Broadcast Domains Defined in Software

15.5.2  Routing Between VLANs

15.5.3  Header Tag

15.5.4  Traffic Management and Network Security

16  IP Networks, Routers and Addresses

16.1  Definition of Network

16.2  IPv4 Address Classes

16.2.1  Packets and Network Addresses

16.2.2  Historical Network Classes

16.2.3  Class A, B and C

16.2.4  Network ID and Host ID

16.2.5  Class D and E

16.2.6  Dotted-Decimal Notation

16.3  Subnets and Classless Inter-Domain Routing

16.4  DHCP

16.4.1  Dynamic Addresses for Clients

16.4.2  Static Addresses and DNS for Servers

16.4.3  DHCP Client – Server Communications

16.4.4  DHCP Message Exchange

16.4.5  Lease Expiry

16.4.6  DHCP to Assign Static Addresses

16.5  Assigning Subnets to Broadcast Domains

16.6  IP Network: Routers Connected with Point-to-Point Circuits

16.6.1  Broadcast Domain at Each Location

16.6.2  Edge Router at Each Location

16.6.3  Default Gateway

16.6.4  Packet Creation

16.6.5  Packet Transmission from the Source

16.6.6  IP to MAC Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

16.6.7  Packet Routing

16.6.8  Overbooking & Bandwidth on Demand

16.7  Routers and Customer Edge

16.7.1  Customer Edge Device

16.7.2  Router Connects Broadcast Domains

16.7.3  Routing

16.7.4  Denying Communications

16.7.5  Packet Filtering

16.7.6  Port Filtering

16.7.7  Firewall

16.8  Public and Private IPv4 Addresses

16.8.1  Public Addresses

16.8.2  Regional Internet Registries

16.8.3  Unassigned or Private Addresses

16.9  Network Address Translation

16.9.1  Network Address Translator

16.9.2  Outbound

16.9.3  Inbound

16.9.4  Advantages of NAT

16.9.5  Implementation

16.10  TCP and UDP

16.11  IPv6

16.11.1  Expanded Addressing Capabilities

16.11.2  Header Simplification

16.11.3  Improved Support for Extensions and Options

16.11.4  Support for Traffic Management

16.11.5  IPv6 Packet Format

16.12  IPv6 Address Allocation and Address Types

16.12.1  Internet Registry Identification

16.12.2  Sites and Global Routing Prefix

16.12.3  Interface ID

16.12.4  Subnet ID

16.12.5  Allocation

16.12.6  Subnet Prefix

16.12.7  IPv6 Address Types

17  MPLS and Carrier Networks

17.1  Introduction

17.1.1  Overbooking

17.1.2  Congestion, Contention and Packet Loss

17.1.3  Class of Service (CoS)

17.2  Carrier Packet Network Basics

17.2.1  Provider Edge (PE) and Customer Edge (CE)

17.2.2  Access

17.2.3  Advantages of Packet Networks

17.3  Service Level Agreements

17.3.1  Traffic Profile

17.3.2  Contract

17.3.3  Business Decisions

17.3.4  Enforcement: Out of Profile Traffic

17.3.5  Abusive Applications

17.4  Provider Equipment at the Customer Premise

17.5  Virtual Circuit Technologies

17.5.1  IP Routing vs. Centralized Control

17.5.2  Traffic Classes

17.5.3  Virtual Circuits

17.5.4  SVCs and PVCs

17.5.5  Ingress Device: Packet Classification

17.5.6  Forwarding Based on Class Number

17.5.7  Differentiated Services

17.6  MPLS

17.6.1  MPLS vs. TCP

17.6.2  Forwarding Equivalence Class

17.6.3  Labels and Label Stacking

17.6.4  Label-Switched Path

17.6.5  IP User-Network Interface

17.6.6  Label Edge Routers

17.6.7  Label-Switching Router Operation

17.7  MPLS VPN Service for Business Customers

17.7.1  Private Network Service

17.7.2  Virtual Private Network (VPN)

17.7.3  Internet VPNs

17.7.4  MPLS VPN

17.8  MPLS and Diff-Serv to Support Class of Service

17.8.1  DS Codepoints

17.8.2   Assured Forwarding and Expedited Forwarding

17.9  MPLS for Integrated Access

17.9.1  SIP Trunking, VPN and Internet on One Access

17.10  MPLS for Traffic Aggregation

17.10.1  Label Stacking

17.11  M is for Multiprotocol: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)

18  Wrapping Up

18.1  Technology Deployment Steps

18.2  Requirements Specification

18.3  High-Level Design

18.4  Technology Roundup

18.5  Review: Circuits and Services

18.6  Private Network

18.7  Carrier IP Services

18.7.1  Five Main Flavors

18.7.2  Retail Internet Service

18.7.3  Wholesale Internet Service: Transit and Peering

18.7.4  Wireless IP Services

18.7.5  MPLS VPN Service

18.7.6  SIP Trunking Service

18.7.7  Physically Connecting

18.7.8  Advantages

18.7.9  Fiber Access

18.8  The Future

18.8.1  The IP-PSTN

18.8.2  IP Dial Tone

18.8.3  Services

18.8.4  Sea Change

Appendix A  Modulation Techniques

A.1 Modulation of Carrier Frequencies

A.2 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

A.3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

A.4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)

A.4.1 Baud Rate vs. Bit Rate

A.5 Quadrature PSK (QPSK)

A.6 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

A.7 Constraints on Achievable Bit Rate

Appendix B  Legacy Channelized Transmission Systems

B.1 The Digital Hierarchy: Legacy Channelized Transmission Speeds

B.1.1 Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera

B.1.2 DS0

B.1.3 DS1 and E1

B.1.4 DS2

B.1.5 DS3

B.1.6 STM and SDH

B.2 Digital Carrier Systems:
Legacy Transmission Technologies

B.2.1 Technologies

B.2.2 Carrier Systems

B.2.3 T1

B.2.4 T3 and Bit-Interleaved Multiplexing

B.2.5 SONET and Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing

B.2.6 SDH

B.2.7 Line Speed vs. Technology

B.3 Framing

B.3.1 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing

B.3.2 Framing and Transmission Frames

B.3.3 DS1 Frame

B.3.4 STS-1 (DS3) Frames

B.3.5 SONET Optical Carrier Frames

B.3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Channels


B.4.1 Basic Rate Interface (BRI)

B.4.2 Obsolescence of BRI 

B.4.3 Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

B.4.4 PRI Physical Connection

B.4.5 T1 vs. PRI

Appendix C  All About T1

C.1 T1 History and Applications

C.2 T1 Circuit Components

C.3 Operation

C.4 T1 Framing

C.4.1 Superframe Format

C.4.2 ESF

C.5 Pulses and Line Code: AMI

C.5.1 Repeaters

C.6 Synchronization: Bit-Robbing

C.6.1 56 kb/s for Data

C.7 B8ZS and 64 kb/s Clear Channels

C.8 How T1 Is Provided

C.8.1 HDSL

C.9 Fractional T1, DACS and Cross-Connects

C.10 Subrate Data Circuits 1.2 kb/s to 56 kb/s

C.10.1 CSUs, DSUs and CSU/DSUs

Appendix D  Voice Services and Jargon

D.1 Local Voice Services

D.1.1 POTS and Party Lines

D.1.2 CLASS Services

D.1.3 Local Measured Service

D.1.4 Public Coin Telephone Service

D.1.5 Directory Services

D.1.6 Business Services

D.1.7 Access

D.2 Long Distance Voice Services

D.2.1 Operator Services

D.2.2 Foreign Exchange

D.2.3 OPX: Off-Premise Extension

D.2.4 Tie Line

D.2.5 Private Networks

D.2.6 WATS

D.2.7 AIN Services

D.2.8 Virtual Private Voice Networks

Appendix E  Legacy Datacom Technologies

E.1 "Asynchronous": Start/Stop/Parity

E.1.1 Asynchronous Communications

E.1.2 Framing: Start and Stop Bits

E.1.3 Parity Checking

E.2 X.25: Packet-Switching using Virtual Circuits

E.2.1 X.25 Network Structure and Operation

E.2.2 Reliable Network Service: Guaranteed Delivery

E.2.3 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Network Service

E.3 Frame Relay

E.3.1 Elimination of a Layer of Software

E.3.2 Unreliable Service

E.3.3 Network Structure and Operation

E.3.4 No Guarantees for Voice


E.4.1 Future-Proof Technology (Not)

E.4.2 ATM Cells

E.4.3 Service Classes

Appendix F  Acronyms and Abbreviations

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