book T101 Telecom 101

Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non‑Engineers

CTNS Study Guide and High-Quality Reference Book

7" x 9" softcover book • 362 pages • published September 2013            
ISBN 9781894887052 (print)   ISBN 9781894887069 (eBook)

Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non‑Engineers is the Certification Study Guide for the Telecommunications Certification Organization TCO Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS) telecommunications certification, covering all material required for the CTNS Certification Exam.

It is also the companion reference textbook for Teracom's online CTNS courses, and an ideal day-to-day reference on ... telecom, datacom and networking.

Designed for those without an Engineering degree in telecommunications, our goal is to explain telecom and networks in plain English: the jargon, buzzwords, mainstream technologies and services, standard practices, and most importantly, the underlying ideas… and how it all fits together.

Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non‑Engineers delivers the core knowledge needed in telecommunications today: fundamental concepts and jargon, the PSTN, wireless telecommunications, the OSI model and Layers, Ethernet, IP packets, IP addresses, networks and routers, MPLS, carrier networks and carrier services.

order a professionally printed and bound softcover copy             amazon ebook readable on ANY device with the kindle app or in your browser             get it on google play books             get it on itunes / ibooks

★★★★★ Parallels the Teracom CTNS Course. Highly recommended!

By Amazon Customer Chris on March 19, 2017                
Format: Paperback | Verified Purchase
This book parallels the CTNS (Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist) certification offered by If you need to know the basics of telecom and IT networking, I highly recommend it!

★★★★★ This is a "must-have" book in every technical library!

By W. Guest. on June 29, 2015
Format: Perfect Paperback  
This is an excellent overview of Telecom, Datacom, and Networking.

Eric Coll is an articulate, thoughtful technical writer with an obvious mastery of this challenging field, and he brings all his skill to bear in this book.

For such a broad technical coverage, the book avoids skipping over critical points, and provides an in-depth look as appropriate to allow you to put everything into proper perspective, and to relate how each technology works with the others.

There are a number of excellent analogies, some neat history, and overall, a simply excellent structure. Easy to read, memorable, and chock-full of information.

I hesitate to call books brilliant, but this is about as close to that as it comes.
Very, very highly recommended!

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Content Overview

Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non‑Engineers is six books in one, the textbooks for six courses combined in one volume, giving you a solid foundation in telecom, datacom and networking, from traditional telephony and cellular to Ethernet, IP and MPLS networking.

Fundamentals • Loops & Trunks • Analog • Voiceband • POTS • CO • Remotes • DSL

Wireless Telecommunications
Radio Concepts • Mobility • Cellular Networks • GSM • CDMA • 4G LTE • WiFi • Satellite

The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
Protocols & Standards • OSI Model • Layers • TCP/IP • How Protocol Stacks Work

Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
LAN Concepts • Ethernet and 802.3 • MAC Addresses • LAN Cables • Switches • VLANs

IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
Packets • Networks • Routers & Routing • IP Addresses • DHCP • NAT • IPv6

MPLS and Carrier Packet Networks
Carrier Networks • Carrier Services • MPLS • SLAs • CoS • Integration • Aggregation

Table of Contents / Detailed Outline

This invaluable reference book and study guide contains all of the text and the main graphic from every lesson in all six of Teracom’s online CTNS telecommunications certification courses:
This course covers the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS). Understanding the fundamentals of this technology and network architecture is a starting point for understanding everything else related to telecommunications.
  1 Course Introduction
      1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
1.4 Technical Background: Why Start with the PSTN
2 History of Telecommunications
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Invention of the Telephone
2.3 Establishment of Local Telephone Companies
2.4 AT&T
2.5 Breakup of AT&T
2.6 Competition
2.7 Consolidation and Evolution
2.8 Canadian Telecommunications
         2.8.1 Telephone Companies
2.8.2 Telegraph Companies and Unitel - Allstream
2.9 Summary
3 The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
  3.1 Introduction
3.2 Basic Model for the PSTN
3.3 Loops and Maximum Loop Length
3.4 Circuit-Switching
3.5 Remotes
3.6 Brownfields: Copper to the Premise
3.7 Greenfields: Fiber to the Premise
3.8 Why the Loop Still Matters
3.9 Summary
4 Analog Circuits and Sound
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Voltage Analogs
4.3 Analog Circuits
4.4 Fidelity
4.5 The Nature of Speech; What is Sound?
4.6 Trees Falling in the Forest
4.7 Summary
5 The Voiceband
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Do Trees Falling in the Forest Make a Sound?
5.3 The Voiceband
5.4 Why Does the Voiceband Stop at 3300 Hz?
5.5 Voiceband Limitations
5.6 Summary
6 Plain Ordinary Telephone Service
6.1 Introduction
6.2 POTS
6.3 Tip and Ring
6.4 Twisted Pair
6.5 Microphones, Speakers and Voltage Analogs
6.6 Battery
6.7 Supervision: Loop Start Signaling
6.8 Lightning Protection
6.9 Summary
7 Address Signaling: Pulse Dialing and DTMF
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Numerical Addresses
7.3 Rotary Dial and Pulse Signaling
7.4 Hook Switch vs. Dial Switch
7.5 Problems with Pulse Dialing
7.6 DTMF: Touch-Tone
7.7 In-Band Signaling
7.8 "Hidden" Buttons
7.9 Summary
8 SS7
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Requirements
8.3 MF Signaling
8.4 Out-of-Band Signaling
8.5 SS7 66
8.6 Centralized Call Routing
8.7 Single Point of Failure for Call Routing
8.8 SS7 in Practice
8.9 Summary
Wireless Telecommunications
In this course, we cover wireless, concentrating mostly on mobile communications. We'll cover the principles of operation, jargon and buzzwords in the mobility business, the idea behind cellular radio systems, and explain the different spectrum-sharing technologies, including 1G analog FDMA, 2G TDMA/GSM vs. CDMA, 3G 1X vs. UMTS CDMA and 4G OFDMA. We'll conclude with a lesson on 802.11 wireless LANs (WiFi) and a lesson on satellite communications.
1 Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
1.4 Technical Background
2 Mobile Networks
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Mobility
2.3 Handset
2.4 Base Station and Cell
2.5 Mobile Switch
2.6 Backhaul
2.7 Registration
2.8 Handoff
2.9 Summary
3 First Generation: Analog Cellular Radio
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Mobile Phone System
3.3 The Advanced Mobile Phone System
3.4 Cells
3.5 Frequency Re-Use
3.6 Spectrum-Sharing: Radio Channels
3.7 AMPS Handoffs
3.8 AMPS Capacity
3.9 Summary
4 Second Generation: Digital Cellular
4.1 Introduction
4.2 PCS and GSM
4.3 Digital Cellular Radio
4.4 Summary
5 Digital Cellular "Data" Communications
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Moving "Data"
5.3 Cellphone as a Tethered Modem
5.3.1 USB Cable Tethering
5.3.2 Wireless Tethering with Bluetooth
5.3.3 WiFi Bridging
5.4 Packet Relay to the Internet
5.5 "Stick" or Dongle
5.6 Cellphone as the Terminal
5.7 "Data" Billing Plans
5.8 "Mobile" Pages and Sites
5.9 Summary
6 Spectrum-Sharing: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA
6.1 Introduction
6.2 FDMA
6.2.1 AMPS
6.3 TDMA
6.3.1 GSM
6.3.2 IDEN
6.3.3 Inefficiency of TDMA
6.4 CDMA
6.4.1 Spread Spectrum
6.4.2 Spectral Efficiency
6.5 OFDM
6.6 Summary
7 3G Cellular: CDMA
7.1 Introduction
7.2 IMT-2000
7.3 1X or CDMA2000: IMT-MC
7.5 Data-Optimized Carriers: HSPA and EV-DO
7.6 The End of the Standards War
7.7 Summary
8 4G Mobile Cellular: LTE
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Long-Term Evolution
8.3 OFDM
8.4 3GPP Standards Committees
8.5 Qualcomm Patents
8.6 Summary
9 Wireless LANs
9.1 Introduction
9.2 System Components
9.3 Standards
9.4 Unlicensed Radio Bands
9.5 VoIP over Wireless LANs
9.6 Wireless Security
9.7 Summary
10 Communication Satellites
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Transponders
10.3 Geosynchronous Orbit
10.4 Low Earth Orbit
10.5 Summary
The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
This course establishes a framework for all of the subsequent discussions: the OSI 7-Layer Reference Model, which identifies and divides the functions to be performed into groups called layers. This framework is required to sort out the many functions that need to be performed, and to be able to discuss separate issues separately. You'll learn what a layer is, the purpose of each layer, see examples of protocols used to implement each layer, and learn how a protocol stack really works.
1 Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
2 Open Systems
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Proprietary Systems
2.3 Emulation and Protocol Conversion
2.4 Open Systems
2.5 Summary
3 Protocols and Standards
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Definition of a Protocol
3.3 Areas That Must Be Covered
3.3.1 Application, Messages, Human-Machine Interface
3.3.2 Coding
3.3.3 Authentication
3.3.4 Transport
3.3.5 Segmentation
3.3.6 Encapsulation
3.3.7 Network Addressing
3.3.8 Routing
3.3.9 Error Control
3.3.10 Flow Control
3.3.11 Access Control
3.3.12 Link Addressing
3.3.13 Representing Bits
3.4 Structured Protocols
3.5 Standards
3.6 Summary
4 ISO OSI 7-Layer Reference Model
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model
4.3 7-Layer Model
4.3.1 Physical Layer
4.3.2 Data Link Layer
4.3.3 Network Layer
4.3.4 Transport Layer
4.3.5 Session Layer
4.3.6 Presentation Layer
4.3.7 Application Layer
4.4 A Person Supplies the Content
4.5 Each Layer Performs Its Function
4.6 Summary
5 The Physical Layer: Fiber, Twisted Pair, Coax and Wireless
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Specification for Raw Bit Stream Service
5.3 Examples
5.4 Summary
6 Data Link Layer: Ethernet, LANs, Frames and MAC Addresses
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Communications Between Devices on the Same Circuit
6.3 Frames
6.4 Broadcast Domains
6.5 Collision Domains: Access Control
6.6 Link Addresses: MAC Addresses
6.7 Error Control
6.8 LANs
6.9 IEEE 802 Standards
6.10 Optical Ethernet
6.11 Other Layer 2 Standards
6.12 Summary
7 Network Layer: IP, MPLS, Packets and Routers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Multiple Intervening Circuits
7.3 Addressing
7.4 Routing
7.5 Circuit-Switched Network
7.6 Packet-Switched Network
7.6.1 Bandwidth On Demand
7.6.2 Addresses and Routing
7.7 IP
7.8 Packet Routing Tables
7.9 Virtual Circuits - MPLS
7.10 Summary
8 Transport Layer: TCP, UDP, Ports and Sockets
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Reliability
8.3 TCP
8.4 UDP
8.5 Ports
8.6 Transport Service and Sockets
8.7 Summary
9 Session Layer: POP, HTTP and SIP
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Authentication
9.2.1 POP E-Mail Example
9.2.2 HTTP Example
9.2.3 SIP Example
9.3 Session State and Session Restoration
9.3.1 Cookies
9.4 Authentication Servers
9.5 Summary
10 Presentation Layer: ASCII, MIME, Compression, Encryption and Codecs
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Character Coding
10.2.1 ASCII
10.2.2 Unicode
10.3 MIME
10.4 Codecs
10.5 Data Compression
10.6 Encryption
10.7 Symmetric or Private Key Encryption
10.8 Asymmetric Key Encryption
10.8.1 Public Key Encryption
10.8.2 Digital Signature
10.9 Independence and Separability of the Layers
10.10 Summary
11 Application Layer: SMTP, HTML and English
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Message Format
11.3 Email
11.4 English
11.5 HTML
11.6 File Transfers
11.7 Remote Operations
11.8 Summary
12 How Protocol Stacks Work: The FedEx Analogy
12.1 Link to Online Content
13 Protocol Headers and Matryoshka Dolls
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Protocol Stack in Operation
13.3 Segmentation
13.4 Nested Headers
13.5 Summary
14 Standards Organizations
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Principal Organizations
14.2.1 Reference Model
14.2.2 TCP/IP
14.2.3 Telephone Network
14.2.4 LANs
14.2.5 ANSI
14.3 Summary
Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
LANs are the standard method of implementing data links between machines.  This began as in-building communications using bus cables, and has evolved to switches and twisted pair cables inside the building, and Optical Ethernet equipment and fiber outside the building. You'll gain a solid understanding of Ethernet and its bus topology, CSMA-CD access control, broadcast domains and MAC addresses; MAC frames, the IEEE 802 standards, evolution of Ethernet from 10BASE-T to Gig-E, hubs and switches, LAN cables, the TIA-568 cable categories, basic cabling design; what "bridging" means, how a LAN switch works, and the important concept of VLANs.
1 Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
2 Bus Topology, Access Control, Broadcast Domains and MAC Addresses
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Bus Topology
2.3 Broadcast Domain
2.4 Collisions
2.5 CSMA-CD Access Control
2.6 MAC Addresses
2.7 Mode of Communication
2.8 Summary
3 802.3 and Ethernet
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Ethernet
3.3 IEEE 802 Standards
3.4 802.3 vs. Ethernet
3.5 Operation
3.6 Token Ring
3.7 Baseband LANs
3.8 Issues
3.9 Summary
4 Evolution of Ethernet
4.1 Introduction
4.2 10BASE-5
4.3 10BASE-2
4.4 10BASE-T
4.5 Passive Hubs
4.6 100BASE-T
4.7 Gigabit Ethernet: 1000BASE-T
4.8 Optical Ethernet
4.9 Summary
5 LAN Cabling
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Unshielded Twisted Pair
5.3 TIA-568 Cable Categories
5.4 Difference Between Categories
5.5 Choosing a Category
5.6 Cable Length and Cabling Architecture
5.7 Summary
6 Bridging and Loading Curves
6.1 Introduction
6.2 LAN Segments
6.3 Repeaters
6.4 Overloading
6.5 Bridging
6.6 Spanning Tree
6.7 Summary
7 LAN Switches
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Layer 2 Switches
7.3 Broadcast
7.4 Summary
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Broadcast Domains Defined in Software
8.3 Communicating Between Broadcast Domains
8.4 802.1Q and 802.1p Tagging
8.5 Summary
IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
IP Networks, Routers and Addresses is a comprehensive course on Layer 3 of the OSI Model, concentrating on IP addresses, routers and packets.  You’ll gain a solid understanding of the key principles of packet networks: bandwidth on demand, packet forwarding and packet filtering, how routers work, all of the different types of IP version 4 addresses: static and dynamic, public and private, network address translation plus IP version 6.
1 Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
1.4 Technical Background and Introduction
2 Review: Channelized Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Integration via Channelization
2.3 Advantages
2.4 Disadvantages
2.5 Summary
3 Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing: Bandwidth on Demand
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Statistical Multiplexing
3.3 Addressing Overhead
3.4 Summary
4 Private Network: Bandwidth on Demand + Routing
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Private Network
4.3 Functions Performed by Routers
4.4 Summary
5 Routers
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Network = Relay Between Broadcast Domains
5.3 Routing Tables
5.4 Next Hop Address
5.5 Mask / Subnet Mask
5.6 Network Security: Router as a Point of Control
5.7 Packet Filtering
5.8 Port Filtering
5.9 Firewall Functions
5.10 Customer Edge (CE)
5.11 Summary
6 IPv4 Addresses
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Network Address
6.3 IP Version 4
6.4 Network Classes for the Inter-Net
6.4.1 Network ID
6.4.2 Host ID
6.4.3 Class A
6.4.4 Class B
6.4.5 Class C
6.4.6 Class D - Multicast Addresses
6.4.7 Class E - Reserved Addresses
6.5 Dotted-Decimal Notation
6.6 Summary
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Static and Dynamic Addresses
7.3 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
7.3.1 DHCP Discover
7.3.2 DHCP Offer
7.3.3 DHCP Request
7.3.4 DHCP ACK
7.4 Lease Time
7.5 Using DHCP to Assign Static Addresses
7.6 Viewing the Current Address
7.7 Summary
8 Public and Private IPv4 Addresses
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Public IP Addresses
8.2.1 Regional Internet Registries
8.2.2 Internet Service Providers
8.3 Unassigned or Private IP Addresses
8.4 Summary
9 Network Address Translation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 NAT Operation
9.3 Where to Forward the Return Packet?
9.4 NAT Advantages
9.4.1 Share Network Connection
9.4.2 "Always On" Network Connection
9.4.3 Shield machines from attacks from the Internet
9.5 Obtaining a NAT
9.6 Summary
10 IPv6 Overview
10.1 Introduction
10.2 What's Different About IPv6
10.2.1 Expanded Addressing Capability
10.2.2 Header Simplification
10.2.3 Improved Support for Extensions and Options
10.2.4 Support for Traffic Management
10.3 IPv6 Packet Format
10.4 Summary
11 IPv6 Address Blocks and Allocations
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Interfaces
11.3 Types of IPv6 Addresses
11.3.1 Unicast Addresses
11.3.2 Anycast Addresses
11.3.3 Multicast Addresses
11.3.4 Unspecified Address
11.3.5 Loopback Address
11.3.6 Unique Local Addresses
11.3.7 Link-Local Unicast Addresses
11.3.8 Multicast Addresses
11.3.9 Global Unicast Addresses
11.3.10 IPv4-mapped IPv6 Address
11.4 Organizations Involved
11.4.1 Regional Internet Registries
11.4.2 Local Internet Registry (ISP)
11.4.3 End-User
11.4.4 Site
11.5 IPv6 Address Allocation
11.5.1 Global Routing Prefix = Site
11.5.2 Interface ID
11.5.3 Subnet ID
11.5.4 Residence: One Subnet
11.5.5 Large Organization: Multiple Subnets
11.6 Summary
MPLS and Carrier Packet Networks
MPLS and Carrier Networks is designed to build a solid understanding of carrier packet networks and services, the terminology, technologies, configuration, operation and most importantly, the underlying ideas … in plain English. We’ll cut through the buzzwords and marketing to demystify carrier packet networks and services, explaining Service Level Agreements, traffic profiles, virtual circuits, QoS, Class of Service, Differentiated Services, integration, convergence and aggregation, MPLS and other network technologies, and how they relate to TCP/IP... without bogging down on details.
1 Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Lesson-by-Lesson Overview
1.3 Learning Objectives
1.4 Technical Background / Introduction
2 Carrier Packet Network Basics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Packet-Switching and Bandwidth on Demand
2.3 Carrier Packet Networks
2.3.1 Network Core
2.3.2 Provider Edge (PE)
2.3.3 Access
2.3.4 Customer Edge (CE)
2.4 Advantages of Using Carrier Packet Network Services
2.4.1 No Circuit Set-up Delay
2.4.2 Communication to Many Locations
2.4.3 Cost
2.5 Summary
3 Service Level Agreements: Traffic Profile and Class of Service
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Service Level Agreement (SLA)
3.3 Transmission Characteristics - Class of Service
3.4 Traffic Profile
3.5 Contract
3.6 SLA with No Traffic Profile
3.7 Rationale for SLA with Traffic Profile Enforced
3.8 Out of Profile Traffic
3.8.1 Downgraded CoS
3.8.2 Traffic Shaping and Traffic Policing
3.8.3 Traffic Caps: Billing for Overage
3.8.4 The Bittorrent Problem
3.9 Summary
4 Virtual Circuits
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Problems with Packet-By-Packet Routing
4.3 Traffic Class
4.4 Virtual Circuit and Virtual Circuit ID
4.5 Ingress Device: Packet Classification
4.6 Faster: Routing = Table Lookup
4.7 Network Traffic Management and Service Restoration
4.8 PVCs and SVCs
4.9 Summary
5 Packet-Switching using Virtual Circuits
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Devices and Protocol Stacks
5.3 Virtual Circuit Establishment and Use
5.4 Application Data Flow
5.5 Reliable Network Service
5.6 Connection-Oriented Network Service
5.7 Compare to Unreliable, Connectionless Networks
5.8 Advantages of X.25
5.9 Disadvantages
5.10 Summary
6 Frame Relay
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Faster Than X.25
6.2.1 Relaying Frames Instead of Switching Packets
6.2.2 Unreliable Network Service
6.2.3 Higher Access Line Speeds
6.3 Frame Relay Network Components and Operation
6.4 Performance
6.5 Traffic Profiles
6.5.1 CIR
6.5.2 BIR
6.6 Design and Configuration
6.7 No Delay Guarantees
6.8 Summary
7 TCP/IP over Frame Relay
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Devices and Protocols
7.3 Tracing the Data Flow from Server to Client
7.3.1 Server to CE
7.3.2 CE to Network
7.3.3 Network to CE
7.3.4 CE to Client
7.3.5 End-to-End Reliability via TCP
7.4 Summary
8 QoS Requirement for Voice Over IP
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Old: Circuit-Switching for Voice
8.3 New: Packet-Switching for Voice
8.4 Advantages of Transmitting Voice in Packets
8.5 Tracing the Flow from Speaker to Listener
8.6 Sound Quality, Delay and Jitter
8.7 Networks with No Delay Guarantees
8.8 Need for QoS and Differentiated Service Class for Voice
8.9 Summary
9.1 Introduction
9.2 "Future-Proof" Technology!
9.3 Fail
9.4 ATM Cells
9.5 Service Classes
9.6 Connection Admission Control
9.7 Summary
10.1 Introduction
10.2 MPLS Concepts and Jargon
10.2.1 Forwarding Equivalence Class
10.2.2 Label
10.2.3 Label-Switched Path
10.2.4 Label-Switching Router
10.2.5 Incoming Label Map
10.2.6 Label Edge Router
10.3 Label Swapping
10.4 Summary
11 TCP/IP over MPLS
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Tracing the Data Flow Server to Client
11.2.1 Server to CE
11.2.2 CE to Network PE
11.2.3 Network to CE
11.2.4 CE to Client
11.2.5 End-to-End Reliability via TCP
11.3 Native IP Service
11.4 Multiprotocol: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)
11.5 Summary
12 Differentiated Classes of Service using MPLS
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Different Classes of Service for Different Applications
12.2.1 Multiple Virtual Circuits: Label-Inferred CoS
12.2.2 Multiple Fields: Explicit CoS
12.3 Classes of Service
12.3.1 Expedited Forwarding and Assured Forwarding
12.3.2 "Gold, Silver and Bronze"
12.4 Summary
13 Integration and Convergence using MPLS
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Service Integration
13.3 Services to Be Integrated
13.4 Old: Separate Circuits, Services and Bills
13.5 New: One Circuit, Separate Traffic Classes
13.6 Summary
14 Managing Aggregates of Traffic with MPLS Label Stacking
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Label Stacking
14.3 Example: National-Scale Data VPN
14.3.1 Two Levels of Labeling
14.3.2 Bottom Label Indicates Destination
14.3.3 Top Label Indicates "Data" Traffic Class on Integrated Access
14.3.4 One Label for Routing, One Label for Aggregation
14.4 Aggregation on Carrier Network
14.5 Summary
15 MPLS Services
15.1 Introduction
15.2 What is An "MPLS Service"?
15.3 Difference Between "MPLS Service" and Internet Service
15.4 Costing
15.5 Connecting to MPLS Service
15.6 The Future of "MPLS Service"
15.7 Summary
Acronyms and Abbreviations

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