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Your Teracom newsletter for October 2018
 • Tutorial: How Many IPv6 Addresses Are There?
     Answer: 666 billion for every grain of sand in the earth's crust to a depth 1 mile deep
 • New! CWA Study Guide & Reference Book
     TCO Certified Wireless Analyst course book and certification study guide
     Launch specials: Get the new CWA Study Guide for only $3!
     CWA Certification Package for $39 - Save $100. Four days only!

 • Seminar schedule thru April 2019
    2-for-1 BOOT CAMP special Oklahoma City December 3-7
 • Online Courses & Certifications DEALS
    CTNS and CWA for $258 - save $100
    see all package deals
New! CWA Study Guide and Reference Book
Printed softcover    eBook on Amazon    eBook on Google
CWA Certification Study Guide and Companion Reference Textbook CWA covers the core technical knowledge needed by anyone serious in the wireless business today:

Course 2231: Wireless Fundamentals
• Radio fundamentals. Radio spectrum.
• Digital radio: modems and modulation

Course 2232: Mobile Communications
• Cellular principles. Mobility and handoffs.
• Digital voice. Mobile Internet Access.
• The generations: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
• The technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDM
• The systems: GSM, 1X, UMTS, HSPA and LTE

Course 2233: Fixed Wireless
• Wireless LANs, 802.11 standards, WiFi, security
• Bluetooth, WiMAX, point-to-point and satellites

The CWA companion reference textbook and certification study guide corresponds directly to the CWA online courses and exams. For each lesson, detailed text notes are provided along with the main graphic.

Many people find they learn better with a companion book!

Launch special: Get the CWA Study Guide eBook only $3 - save $36! 
get printed softcover   get eBook on Amazon   get eBook on Google
and get the CWA Certification Package for only $39 - save $100!  
Register and apply coupon 1280 at checkout
Hurry! Four days only!  These offers end October 27.
Seminar Schedule

TCO CTA Certification

TCO CTA Certification

TCO CTA Certification

Live, in-person training, where you can ask questions and interact, is the best you can get.

If you are often distracted at your desk, will you learn much with screen-based training? Won't you learn more out of the office?

Being in a classroom, with an expert instructor, ensures that you will stay focused, and learn.

Discuss and understand the latest technology and industry news in-class. At lunch, you can share your situation with class members, and find out what others are implementing.

Attendees often network and go to dinner together.

Plus, you get printed course books with detailed notes, the CTNS and CTA online courses to refresh your knowledge, and optional TCO Certification exams to prove it!

Seize the day and get the training and certification you need:

Dec 3-5   Oklahoma City  2-for-1 special
Jan 21-25   Miami 
Feb 4-8   Washington DC
Mar 18-22   Santa Clara
Mar 25-29   Toronto
April 8-12   Denver
April 22-26   Vancouver BC 

Specifically designed for non-engineers, Teracom's renowned telecommunications training is organized into two courses back-to-back to make a full week:

Some people, needing a comprehensive course on telecom from A-Z, attend only the core training Course 101 the first three days.

Others, who already have a base, attend Course 130 the last two days for an overview and update on new technologies, and what's coming next.

Most people attend all five days to get the most comprehensive and highest quality telecommunications training available, at a discounted price, with TCO CTNS Certification and CTA Certification included.

Register for the training that best meets your needs!

You will bust the buzzwords, understand the jargon and technologies, and most importantly, the underlying ideas, and how it all fits together ...knowledge you can't get on the job, talking to salespeople or reading articles.

Your knowledge skills, accuracy, productivity and buzzword-frustration level will all be improved with this career-enhancing training.

Telecom BOOT CAMP is the coursework for the TCO Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) certification. The CTA Exam with unlimited repeats is included with the tuition fee ($399 value).

CTNS Online Courses and TCO CTNS Certification are also included.

You may register for just the first three days (listed as Course 101: Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers, $1395) or just the last two days (listed as Course 130: Voice over IP, SIP, Security, 5G and IoT, $995), or both as best meets your needs.

But with the BOOT CAMP price savings, wall-to-wall training and CTA and CTNS certifications, BOOT CAMP is a great opportunity.

Join the thousands of people who have benefited from this training!

How to Register   More info   Schedule   Course 101 Details   Course 130 Details

"Best instructor I've Had!"
Took the basic knowledge I had and expanded it significantly. I liked most the ability of the instructor to teach these classes at a level we could understand and relate to how we perform our duties. Excellent instructor. It was evident he is extremely knowledgeable in the course materials and has an ability to pass that knowledge on to his students.
- Jackie Combs, Telecommunications Security
  Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque NM
  August 2018

“Excellent across the board”
Helped tie up loose ends; have been working in telecom for the past 4 years with no real training or background.  The instructor was very knowledgeable and enthusiastic about the subject matter, and made the information exciting.
- John Cody, Commercial Communications Manager, US Air Force

Tutorial: How Many IPv6 Addresses Are There?

The address fields in IPv6 packets are 128 bits long, meaning 2 to the power 128 addresses.

That's 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses.

This is a number beyond human comprehension.

Forget about questions like

  • "how long is eternity going to last for?",
  • "how far is it to the other side of the universe?",
  • "what happened before the Big Bang?",
  • "where did all that energy come from in the first place?",
  • "who is God's God?", and
  • "who is God's God's God?"

... we humans are not capable of understanding 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456.

Teracom Instructor Richard Olsen did some calculations to help us grasp this number, including calculating how many grains of sand there are in the Earth's crust. (Can you tell Richard is an Engineer?)

I'll let Richard tell the story in his own words:

"I was teaching at Motorola University circa 1998 and in discussing IPv6, a student said, 'You know, there are enough IP addresses in IPv6 for every square inch of the Solar System.'

I thought, that's crazy, he's out of his mind. I just said, 'Wow!'" "Anyway, while flying home I thought, I wonder how many square inches there are in the Solar System anyway. I think I'll figure that out when I get home."

"First I had to decide what 'square inches of the Solar System' meant. I decided to use the surface area of all the planets in square inches. That didn't even come close to the number of IP addresses in IPv6. I decided to throw in the Sun because that sucker is really big. Didn't even come close. Then I decided to use the square inches inside the orbit of Pluto (this was before Pluto got kicked out of the Planet Club – poor Pluto!). Still didn't even come close."

"Finally, I'd always heard "IPv6 has enough IP addresses for every grain of sand on all the beaches on Earth". By this time, I knew that couldn't be. So I finally decided to calculate IP addresses per grain of sand over the entire surface of the Earth, including under the oceans, one mile deep assuming 10,000 grains of sand per cubic inch."

"Answer: an astounding 664 BILLION IP addresses per grain of sand.

Now, that's a big number!!"

"The most commonly quoted number of stars in a galaxy is 100 billion and the most commonly quoted number of galaxies in the Universe is 100 billion.

Assuming there are 10 planets around every star, then there are 10 x 100 x 100 billion billion planets in the Universe.

So how many IP addresses per planet in the entire Universe?

Answer: 3.4 quadrillion IP addresses per planet!"

"The number of IP addresses in IPv6 is truly a prodigious number."

I've told Richard's story many times in classes. Over the years, like all good stories, it became embellished, and the story became "666 billion addresses per grain of sand in the Earth's crust to a depth one mile deep", and "more addresses than there are square inches on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto."

After reading Richard's story again recently, I figured I had better verify the last claim, so I asked Richard to calculate the number of square inches on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto and divide that into 2**128.

It turns out my embellishment was not wrong: there are 5 million addresses per square inch on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto.

Hope this all helps you grasp the number 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456.

Deals: CTNS and CWA for $258 - Save $100
ctns     cwa

Package Deal!

Get the internationally-recognized TCO Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS) online courses and certification, plus the TCO Certified Wireless Analyst (CWA) courses and certification together and save $100!

All package deals
    CTNS and CWA for $258 - save $100
    CTNS and CVA for $288 - save $130
    CTNS, CVA and CWA for $357 - save $200
    CTA and CVA for $448 - save $150
    Certified Telecommunications Subject Matter Expert (CTSME):
    All four certifications: CTA, CTNS, CVA and CWA for $656 - save $300
Your colleagues may be interested... would you please forward this to them?
Many thanks,
Eric Coll, Director
Teracom Training Institute
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