telecommunications training, dvd video courses, online telecom course, IP networking and MPLS training, VoIP fundamentals, books, certification

Teracom Tutorial: The Mature Competitive Environment: Regional Rings and MANs

Go to Teracom home page scheduled public seminars, instructor-led telecom training, networking training, telecommunications training, VoIP training, MPLS training courses self-paced DVD video courses telecom, datacom, networking, IP, MPLS, wireless, training, learning, courses, online online certification and testing info on bringing any Teracom seminar to your location for a private team training session telecommunications training book, networking book Free online tutorials, lessons, articles and more!
site map
Register for Certification
Register: Online Courses
Register for a Seminar
Order DVDs
Order Books
Certification Exams
Online Course Previews
Video Previews
CPE Credits
free bonuses - certification and online courses
Online Courses
Instructor-Led Courses
Private Onsite Training
DVD-Video Courses
Reference Books
Free Tutorials
Why take our courses
Who will benefit
Value pricing
About Teracom
Contact us
Policies and FAQs
be notified of new tutorials, seminars, video releases and more
Teracom Tutorial: The Mature Competitive Environment: Regional Rings and MANs
This tutorial was part of the update to Course 101, Chapter 3, October 2008.

Competition today means much more than the 1984 idea of LECs, competitive IXCs and switched access charges or subcontracted dedicated access lines. Competition today includes competitors providing various services to residences and business customers using a mix of switched access, subcontracted dedicated access, plus colocation and bypass on the “last mile”.

Paying the Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC) for tariffed services, either switched access or dedicated lines, to connect the last mile from a competitive carrier’s Point of Presence (POP) to the competitive carrier’s customer started to become widespread in 1984.

Subsequent legislation and regulatory decisions unbundled the ILEC’s physical access network from the ILEC’s services provided on that network. This enabled competitive carriers to lease just the ILEC’s physical cabling to the customer instead of paying for a tariffed service. If the ILEC is providing copper wires without electricity on them, i.e. not attached to a CO switch line card, this is called a dry circuit. A fiber not attached to a line card is called dark fiber.

In addition to being required to lease dry copper or dark fiber to their competitor, the ILEC is required to build colocation facilities in its COs. These are rooms, often with separate entrance doors, where the competitive carrier can locate their own circuit-terminating equipment like modems and line cards, and network equipment like switches, multiplexers and routers.

When a company collocates equipment in the CO and connects it to the ILEC’s cabling, the competitive carrier is said to be acting as a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC).

Going even further, the competitive carrier can simply lay their own fiber from their POP to their large customers and bypass the ILEC altogether.

Mature Competitive Carrier Network: Regional Rings, POPs and MANs
rings and mans

A current model for a competitive carrier’s network, depicted above, now includes the POPs in cities connected together to form a “long distance” backbone, plus one or more Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) built out from the POP in each city.

To ensure high availability in any kind of network, more than one physical connection is required to every station, on different cables, to protect against cut lines. It turns out that the cheapest way to do this is to connect them neighbor-to-neighbor-to-neighbor to form a ring.

The competitive carrier’s POPs in cities are connected to form regional rings, which are interconnected at multiple places to implement national communications.

Within a metropolitan area, a competitive carrier will install or lease fiber to connect their POP to the ILEC’s toll center, to the ILEC’s COs where they have collocations, and to their large customers. These physical locations are also connected neighbor-to-neighbor to form a ring for redundancy; the ring is the MAN.

From Course 101: Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers, rev 2008-10 pages 3.14 and 3.15
online telecom training courses
online courses
telecommunications certification
instructor-led course 101: telecom, datacom and networking for non-engineering professionals
textbooks, reference books, certification study guides
DVD video courses
DVD-video courses
boot camp
mind the gap!
tell a friend:
Join our satisfied customers including:
at&t verizon bell canada microsoft intel cisco gsa cox cable
Copyright © Teracom Training Institute.   All rights reserved.    privacy policy    contact us    FAQs, help and policies