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Course 2212 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks - Lesson 1: Introduction

Welcome to The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks.
This free online network training course lesson is the introduction to the course.

This course is part of the CTNS Certification Package, a set of six courses plus Telecommunications Certification Organization (TCO) Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist certification. It is also in the four-course "IP" package, the Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist (CIPTS) Certification Package. CTNS is more complete training, six courses beginning with the PSTN, plus wireless then the four CIPTS "IP" courses.

With this course, we begin networking. There are so many functions that need to be performed to be able to interwork different systems, a structure is required to be able to categorize and separate functions, so that it is possible to discuss separate issues separately and not mix things up. The method most commonly used to enable discussion of separate issues separately is the ISO OSI 7-layer Reference Model.
We’ll begin our discussion with some definitions, then an overview of the OSI model, introducing layers, layered architectures and protocol stacks.

Then we’ll go through the layers individually and give examples of protocols like IP, TCP, LANs and DSL to see where they fit into the stack. 
We’ll finish off understanding how a protocol stack actually works in operation, and conclude the course with a review of different active standards organizations.

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Lesson Notes
The objectives of this course are to understand:
  • The concept of an open system and its advantages
  • What a protocol is and what a standard is
  • The OSI Model and its purpose
  • What a Layer is
  • The seven layers of the OSI model
  • The name of each layer
  • The functions each layer is responsible for
  • Examples of actual protocols for each layer
  • What a protocol stack is and how it operates
  • Examples of standards organizations that publish protocols

List of lessons
This course is comprised of the following lessons:

  1. The Introduction (this one)
  2. Open Systems, where we will discuss open vs. proprietary methods of communications
  3. Protocols and Standards, where we will understand what a protocol is, monolithic vs. structured protocols, and how a standard relates to a protocol
  4. Then the ISO OSI 7-Layer Reference Model, where we will introduce the model and how it operates, and give an overview of each of the layers in the model. Then we’ll go over that again, more slowly, one layer at a time:
  5. The Physical Layer, moving bits over Fiber, Twisted Pair, Cable and Wireless
  6. Layer 2, the Data Link Layer, where we will discuss frames, LANs and MAC Addresses
  7. Layer 3, the Network Layer: IP, MPLS, Packets and Routers
  8. The Transport Layer: Reliability, Ports and Sockets
  9. The Session Layer: SIP, POP and HTTP
  10. The Presentation Layer, where we’ll discuss ASCII, MIME, Compression, Encryption, and Codecs
  11. The Application Layer, where we will use SMTP, HTML and English as examples.
  12. After the overview of the layers, and a closer examination of each layer one at a time, the next lesson in this course is Protocol Stacks: The FedEx Analogy, where we will use an analogy of company to company communications using FedEx to better understand how the layers interoperate with each other and how a protocol stack works.
  13. After that is a lesson on how the protocol stack works from a bits point of view, and how Protocol Headers end up being nested like Babushka Dolls
  14. The last lesson in this course is Standards Organizations, a brief overview of organizations that publish what they hope will become standard protocols for communications.
OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks

OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks

Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS) Certification Package
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Six online courses and certification covering the core knowledge needed for telecommunications today:
  checkmark The PSTN
  checkmark Wireless Telecommunications
  checkmark The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
  checkmark Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
  checkmark IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
  checkmark MPLS and Carrier Networks
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Based on Teracom's proven training used by hundreds of telecom companies and major organizations, you will benefit from decades of knowledge, insight and experience distilled into clear lessons, logically organized to build one concept on another.
Courses in the Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist package
This set of courses, some 66 lessons in all, will give you a well-rounded, structured understanding of telecom, datacom and networking fundamentals, jargon, technologies, solutions and standard practices in traditional telecom, wireless and IP telecommunications. Plus, your CTNS Certification to prove it, with Certificate, Letter of Introduction / Letter of Reference and all the other benefits of TCO Certification.
  Get up to speed and establish a solid understanding of traditional telecommunications with this proven course.
Bust the buzzwords, demystify the jargon and understand how it all fits together, in plain English.
  Loops and Trunks • POTS • Circuit-Switching • LECs, CLECs and IXCs • Analog • Voiceband • DTMF • SS7
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
Wireless Telecommunications
  Master the fundamentals of wireless telecom, concentrating on cellular mobile voice and data.
Understand radio communications from basic principles to mobility and cellular from GSM to LTE, plus WiFi.
  Mobility • Cellular Networks • Internet over Cellular • GSM and TDMA • UMTS and 1X CDMA • LTE • WiFi • Satellite
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
  Learn the difference between a layer, a protocol and a standard. Establish a framework to build structured knowledge and discuss separate issues separately. Understand how fiber, Ethernet, IP and TCP fit together.
  Protocols & Standards • OSI Model • Layers • Protocol Stacks • How Protocol Stacks Work
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
  Understand LANs, broadcast domains, Ethernet and 802, MAC addresses and MAC frames, LAN cable categories, bridging, LAN switches and VLANs... Layer 2 of the OSI model.
  MAC Addresses • 802.3 and Ethernet • Broadcast Domains • LAN Cables • LAN Switches • VLANs
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
  Learn how routers implement a network by relaying packets, how IP addresses are used to do this, static addresses, dynamic addresses and DHCP, public addresses, private addresses and NAT, and IPv6.
  IP Packets • Networks • Routers • Static, Dynamic, Public, Private Addresses • NAT • IPv6
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
MPLS and Carrier Networks
  Get up to speed on carrier networks and services, customer edge, provider edge, QoS, CoS and Service Level Agreements, MPLS and how MPLS is used for VPNs, service integration and traffic aggregation.
  Carrier Packet Networks • Technologies • MPLS • SLAs • CoS • Integration & Aggregation
  overview brochure free lesson 1: course introduction
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Overview of Courses included in the CTNS Certification Package
Like Teracom's famous core training Course 101 "Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers", our very popular core training DVD-Video packages and the Telecom 101 textbook, the Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist Certification Package begins with the Public Switched Telephone Network, then a course on Wireless Telecommunications, followed by four courses covering IP telecommunications and IP telecom networks.
If you are interested only in IP telecommunications, the CIPTS: Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist package may be appropriate, as it skips the traditional telephony and wireless and goes directly to the IP telecommunications courses.
If your goal is to build a full, rounded knowledge of telecommunications, then understanding the history, structure and operation of the telephone network built over the past 135 years or more is the starting point for everything else.
Course 2201 The PSTN
Loops and Trunks   •  POTS   •  Circuit-Switching   •  LECs, CLECs and IXCs   •  Analog   •  Voiceband   •  DTMF   •  SS7
We begin with a history lesson, understanding how and why telephone networks and the companies that provide them are organized into local access and inter-city transmission, or as we will see, Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) and Inter-Exchange Carriers (IXCs).
Then we will establish a basic model for the PSTN and understand its main components: Customer Premise, Central Office, loop, trunk, outside plant, circuit switching, attenuation, loop length, remotes, and why knowledge of the characteristics of the loop remains essential knowledge even though we are moving to Voice over IP.
Next, we'll cover aspects of telephony and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service, including analog, the voiceband, twisted pair, supervision and signaling including DTMF. The course is completed with an overview of SS7, the control system for the telephone network in the US and Canada.
On completion of this course, you will be able to draw a model of the Public Switched Telephone Network, identify and explain its components and technologies including:
• Loops and trunks, CO, telephone switches and circuit-switching
• Twisted pair, the outside plant, remotes, fiber to the neighborhood
• The founding, breakup and re-emergence of AT&T in the US; Bell & TELUS in Canada
• LECs, IXCs and CLECs
• Plain Ordinary Telephone Service (POTS):
• Analog, the voiceband, how it relates to copper wires, electricity, circuits and sound
• Supervision, dial tone, ringing, lightning protection, tip and ring, -48 volts
• Touch-tone and DTMF
• Basics of SS7 and call routing
Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications
Mobility   •  Cellular Networks   •  Internet over Cellular   •  GSM and TDMA   •  UMTS and 1X CDMA   •  LTE   •  WiFi   •  Satellite
In many parts of the world, particularly outside Canada, the US and Western Europe, this is the physical telephone network, as deploying radio transceivers is far cheaper than embarking on a new project to pull copper wires and/or fiber to every residence.
Most of this course is devoted to mobile wireless telecommunications. We begin with basic concepts and terminology including base stations and transceivers, mobile switches and backhaul, handoffs, cellular radio concepts and digital radio concepts.
Then, we cover spectrum-sharing technologies and their variations in chronological order: GSM/TDMA vs. CDMA for second generation, 1X vs. UMTS CDMA for third generation along with their data-optimized 1XEV-DO and HSPA, how Steve Jobs ended the standards wars with the iPhone and explaining the OFDM spectrum-sharing method of LTE for 4G.
This course is completed with a lesson on WiFi, or more precisely, 802.11 wireless LANs, and a lesson on satellite communications.
You’ll gain a solid understanding of the key principles of wireless and mobile networks:
• Coverage, capacity and mobility
• Why cellular radio systems are used
• Mobile network components and operation
• Registration and handoffs
• Digital radio
• "Data" over cellular: Internet access
• Cellular technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
• Generations: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
• Systems: GSM, UMTS, 1X, HSPA, LTE
• WiFi, 802.11 wireless LANs
• Satellite communications
The remaining four courses in the CTNS package are on the "IP" telecommunications network and its three main enabling technologies: Ethernet, IP and MPLS, and beginning with the OSI model and its layers to establish a framework.
If you'd prefer to take just these four "IP" courses, please check out the Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist package.
Course 2212 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
Protocols & Standards   •  OSI Model   •  Layers   •  Protocol Stacks   •  How Protocol Stacks Work
This course establishes a framework for all of the subsequent discussions: the OSI 7-Layer Reference Model, which identifies and divides the functions to be performed into groups called layers. This framework is required to sort out the many functions that need to be performed, and to be able to discuss separate issues separately.
First, we'll define the term "protocol" and compare that to a standard. Then we'll define "layer" and how a layered architecture operates, and provide an overview of the name, purpose and function of each of the seven layers in the OSI model.
Then, we'll go back through the story more slowly, with one lesson for each of the layers, examining in greater detail the functions that have to be performed and giving examples of protocols and how and where they are used to implement particular layers.
The result is a protocol stack, one protocol on top of another on top of another to fulfill all of the required functions. To make this more understandable, this course ends with the famous FedEx Analogy illustrating the concepts using company-to-company communications, and an analogy of Babushka dolls to illustrate how the protocol headers are nested at the bits level.
On completion of this course, you will be able to
Define a protocol and differentiate that from a standard
• E
xplain why a layered architecture is required
List the seven layers of the OSI model, the name, purpose and functions of each
• Explain how the layers relate to each other
Explain how a protocol stack operates and protocol headers.
Course 2111 Ethernet, LANs and VLANs - which could also be titled "Layer 2"
MAC Addresses   •  802.3 and Ethernet   •  Broadcast Domains   •  LAN Cables   •  LAN Switches   •  VLANs
This course is everything you need to know about LANs.
We'll begin with the original LAN: Ethernet and its bus topology, defining "broadcast domain" and explaining its fundamental operation and characteristics: CSMA-CD access control, MAC addresses and MAC frames.
Then we'll cover the IEEE 802 standards and the evolution of Ethernet from 10BASE-T to Gig-E, LAN cables and the TIA-568 cable categories, basic cabling design; what "bridging" means and how a LAN switch works.
This course is completed with the important concept of VLANs: defining broadcast domains in software, a key part of basic network security practice.
On completion of this course, you will be able to explain
• Ethernet and the original bus design
• What a broadcast domain is
• What MAC addresses are
• The access control mechanism
• The IEEE 802 series of standards, 802.2 and 802.3
• Gigabit Ethernet on copper and fiber
• Codes like 100BASE-T
• LAN cables and the TIA-568 cable categories
• LAN switches, also called "Layer 2" switches
• How and why VLANs are used to separate devices
Course 2213 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses - which could also be titled "Layer 3"

IP Packets   •  Packet Networks   •  Routers   •  Static, Dynamic, Public, Private Addresses   •  NAT   •  IPv6  

This is a comprehensive course on IP addresses, routers and packets. We begin with the two basic principles of packet networks: bandwidth on demand, also known as overbooking or statistical multiplexing; and packet-switching, also known as packet forwarding or routing.
We'll understand what routers do and where they are located, routing tables and the basic operation of a router and the standard strategy deploying an edge router between the LANs and the WAN at each location.
Then we'll cover IP version 4: address classes and how they are assigned to Regional Internet Registries then ISPs then end-users, dotted-decimal notation, static addresses, dynamic addresses and DHCP, public addresses, private addresses and NAT.
The course concludes with IPv6: the IPv6 packet and changes from IPv4, IPv6 address allocations and assignments and end up understanding how IPv6 subnets will be assigned to broadcast domains and 18 billion billion addresses per residence.

On completion of this course, you will be able to explain
• What a packet is
• What a router is
• Overbooking and bandwidth on demand
• Why and how it can be implemented
• What a network is, what a private network is
• How routers implement a network by connecting links
• How routers move packets between broadcast domains
• Basic network design and security: packet filtering
• The basic structure and contents of a routing table
• The Customer Edge
• IPv4 address blocks: Class A, Class B and Class C
• Dotted-decimal notation
• Static addresses and dynamic addresses
• DHCP and how and why it is used to assign both
• Public addresses and private addresses
• How, why and where each is used
• NAT: Network Address Translation
• IPv6
• How IPv6 addresses are allocated to ISPs
• How each residence gets 18 billion billion IPv6 addresses

Course 2214 MPLS and Carrier Networks
Carrier Packet Networks   •  Technologies   •  MPLS   •  SLAs   •  CoS   •  Integration & Aggregation
MPLS and Carrier Networks is a comprehensive, up-to-date course on the networks companies like AT&T build and operate, how they are implemented, the services they offer, and how customers connect to the network.
The IP packets and routing of the previous course is one part of the story. Performance guarantees, and methods for quality of service, traffic management, aggregation and integration is another big part of the story, particularly once we leave the lab and venture into the real world and the business of telecommunications services.
We'll begin by establishing a basic model for a customer obtaining service from a provider, defining Customer Edge, Provider Edge, access and core, and a Service Level Agreement: traffic profile vs. transmission characteristics.
Next, we'll understand virtual circuits, a powerful tool used for traffic management and how they are implemented with MPLS, explaining the equipment, jargon and principles of operation.
Without bogging down on details, we’ll cut through buzzwords and marketing to demystify
• Carrier packet networks and services
• Customer Edge (CE) and Provider Edge (PE)
• Service Level Agreements
• Traffic profiles
• Virtual circuits
• QoS, Class of Service and Differentiated Services
• Integration, convergence and aggregation
• MPLS and other network technologies
• How this relates to TCP/IP
• How MPLS is used for business customer VPNs
• How MPLS is used for integrated access:
• How all services are carried together on one circuit
• How MPLS is used to prioritize and manage IP packets
• "MPLS services" vs. the Internet
This course can be taken by those who need just an introduction to carrier networks and MPLS, as well as by those who need to establish a solid base on which to build more detailed knowledge.
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About TCO Certification
Teracom is a Gold Training Partner of the Telecommunications Certification Organization, authorized to administer exams for TCO certifications on the myTeracom Learning Management System and award TCO Certifications.
TCO Certification is proof of your knowledge of telecom, datacom and networking fundamentals, jargon, buzzwords, technologies and solutions.
It's backed up with a Certificate suitable for framing - plus a personalized Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction detailing the knowledge your TCO Certification represents and inviting the recipient to contact Teracom for verification.
You may list Teracom Training Institute as a reference on your résumé if desired.
Getting your Certificate

Each course has a course exam, consisting of ten multiple-choice questions chosen at random from a pool and shuffled in order. Passing the course exams proves your knowledge of these topics and results in your certification as a Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist.

Your Certificate and Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction will be immediately available for download from your Dashboard in the myTeracom Learning Management System. You may also order a signed and sealed Certificate by airmail.
Choosing the "Unlimited Plan" at registration allows you to repeat courses and/or exams at no additional charge – which means guaranteed to pass if you're willing to learn.
Alternatively, if you like this discounted package of courses, but don't need the certification – or don't feel like writing exams – no problem! Take the Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers course package, which includes the same courses as the CTNS certification package, without the certification exams.
Benefits of Certification for Individuals

One benefit of TCO certification is differentiating yourself from the rest of the crowd when applying for a job or angling for a promotion.

The knowledge you gain taking Teracom's Online Courses, confirmed with TCO Certification, is foundational knowledge in telecommunications, IP, networking and wireless: fundamental concepts, mainstream technologies, jargon, buzzwords, and the underlying ideas - and how it all fits together.
This type of knowledge and preparation makes you an ideal candidate to hire or promote to a task, as you will be able to build on your knowledge base to quickly get up to speed and work on a particular project - then have the versatility to work on subsequent projects.
TCO Certification will help demonstrate you have this skill... a desirable thought to have in your potential manager's mind.
Benefits of Certification for Employers
Take advantage of these courses for individual learning, a team, or for an entire organization. The scalable myTeracom Learning Management System can register and manage all of your people through their courses, lessons and exams, and generate management reports showing progress and scores with the click of a button.
For larger organizations, the courses and exams can also be licensed and deployed on an organization's internal LMS.

Teracom certification packages are an extremely cost-effective way of implementing consistent, comprehensive telecommunications and networking technology fundamentals training, ensuring that both existing resources and new hires are up to the same speed, with a common vocabulary, framework and knowledge base.

The course exams provide concrete measurements of competency in key knowledge areas. Management can view the progress and results of all team members and export the results to Excel with the click of a button.
These reports identify skills deficiencies and strengths, and provide tangible proof of return on investment and team readiness for reports to upper management.
Based on Teracom's proven instructor-led training courses developed and refined over twenty years providing training for organizations including AT&T, Verizon, Bell Canada, Intel, Microsoft, Cisco, Qualcomm, the CIA, NSA, IRS, FAA, US Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force and hundreds of others, Teracom online courses are top-notch, top-quality and right up to date with the topics and knowledge you need.

Get started today to make this invaluable addition to your knowledge and skills!     


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